֧ڧڧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧԧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ ӧݧ֧ էߧڧ ڧ ѧԧ ٧ѧاէ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ֧ݧӧ֧֧ܧ ڧӧڧݧڧ٧ѧڧ ڧާ֧֧ 3000-ݧ֧ߧ֧ ڧڧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ. ֧ݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧѧէܧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ѧާߧڧܧ ֧ݧ֧ߧԧ, ݧҧݧѧ ֧ڧܧѧ էܧѧ٧ӧѧ, ֧ӧ ֧ݧӧ֧֧ܧڧ ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ ӧڧݧڧ ߧ ݧ֧ ާ ߧѧ٧ѧ.

ѧاէ֧ߧڧ է֧ӧߧڧ ٧֧ާݧ֧է֧ݧ֧ܧڧ ܧݧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ӧէڧ 3-2 ֧ݧ֧ڧ է .. ӧ ݧӧڧߧ 3 - ֧ӧ ݧӧڧߧ 2 ֧ݧ֧ڧ է .. - ӧ֧ӧ ާէѧ ا ֧ӧӧѧݧ ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ, ܧ ѧӧӧѧݧ ѧ٧ѧҧܧ ԧӧݧ ҧѧէѧѧߧܧڧ ݧѧ٧ڧ ڧާ֧ݧ ӧ٧ ѧѧܧ ڧӧڧݧڧ٧ѧڧ֧ ߧէڧ. 2- ֧ݧ֧ڧ է .. - ֧֧ ֧ڧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ާ֧اߧ ߧ֧ ֧ ڧէڧݧ ާڧԧѧڧ ߧ ( ߧէڧ), ԧ-ӧ (ڧէڧ ֧ڧ), ӧ (ߧ ܧ֧ѧ - ѧ) ڧߧէڧѧߧܧڧ (ѧڧۧܧڧ) ݧ֧ާ֧.
֧ڧڧ ѧ٧ڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ֧ݧ ԧ ӧߧ-ڧѧߧܧڧ ݧ֧ާ֧. է֧ӧߧ֧֧ۧ ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ٧֧ާݧ֧է֧ݧ֧ ٧֧ ѧާѧߧҧѧҧ ҧѧ֧ۧߧ ֧ܧ ѧѧѧ ҧߧѧا֧ߧ ܧ էާѧߧڧ اڧӧߧ, ٧֧ߧ ֧ߧڧ ާ֧ߧ, ܧѧާ֧ߧߧ ٧֧ߧ֧ܧ ܧ֧ާߧڧ֧ӧ ӧܧݧѧէ էݧ ֧. ֧էѧݧ֧ܧ ֧ߧէاڧܧ֧ߧ, ܧݧ ܧڧݧѧܧ ѧѧ٧ ҧݧ ߧѧۧէ֧ߧ ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ٧֧ާݧ֧է֧ݧ֧ ߧ֧ݧڧ ҧߧ٧ӧԧ ӧ֧ܧ ݧѧէ ҧݧ֧ 90 ԧ. ֧ӧߧڧ ٧֧ާݧ֧է֧ݧ֧ܧڧ ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ҧߧѧا֧ߧ էݧڧߧ ѧߧէѧ - ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ѧѧݧݧڧ֧ اѧܧѧ.
֧ݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧާߧڧܧ ҧߧ٧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ֧٧ާ ݧڧݧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ѧ٧ѧҧѧԧҧܧ ٧֧ާݧ֧է֧ݧ֧ܧ ܧݧ. ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ٧֧ާݧ֧է֧ݧ֧ ܧ, ѧӧѧ-3 է. ҧݧ ߧӧѧߧ ֧֧էڧߧ 2-ԧ ֧ݧ֧ڧ. է֧ ҧݧ ߧѧۧէ֧ߧ ݧ֧է է֧ӧߧڧ ܧѧߧѧݧ. ߧѧѧݧ 1 ֧ݧ֧ڧ է .. ֧٧ާ ާڧ֧ ާڧѧҧѧէܧѧ ܧݧ ѧ٧ӧڧ ֧ߧڧܧ ڧܧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ֧ߧڧ. ֧֧ߧߧ ֧էݧާ ҧѧ٧ اڧ٧ߧ ٧ѧߧڧ ٧֧ާݧ֧է֧ݧڧ֧ ֧֧էڧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ԧѧߧܧ էݧڧߧ. ܧѧ ٧֧ާݧ֧է֧ݧ֧ܧѧ ܧݧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ֧ԧѧߧܧ էݧڧߧ էѧڧ֧ ܧߧ 2 - ߧѧѧݧ 1 ֧ݧ֧ڧ է .. ߧѧѧݧ ֧ӧԧ ֧ݧ֧ڧ ߧڧ ߧӧѧߧڧ ѧܧڧ ԧէ, ܧѧ ѧާѧܧѧߧ, ֧, -ԧѧ, ڧܧ֧, ڧӧ. ӧ֧ާ اէ֧ߧڧ ٧ѧڧۧܧ "ӧ֧" ԧ֧ڧ֧ܧԧ .

֧ӧߧ֧ۧڧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ҧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ӧݧ֧ է֧ӧߧ֧ҧѧܧڧۧܧ ѧӧ (ڧާ֧ߧߧ ڧߧڧܧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧݧ ֧ԧ ѧէ "ӧ֧", ѧܧڧ ֧ڧѧߧܧ ߧѧէڧ, ѧܧڧѧߧ ѧߧڧߧ ѧӧ), ڧާ֧ӧ֧ ӧ٧ ڧڧ֧, ӧ ѧӧڧݧߧ, ڧէڧ֧, ߧէڧۧܧڧާ ܧߧا֧ӧѧާ. ԧݧѧߧ ѧߧڧߧ ڧڧԧѧڧ, ֧ڧ ԧ֧ԧ֧ާߧڧ ڧڧ, 9-7 ӧ. է .. ڧާ֧ ާ֧ "ѧڧڧۧܧڧ " ѧܧڧ էݧ ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧߧݧ ߧѧ ݧѧ٧ڧ. ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ֧ڧ ߧڧէܧԧ, اڧӧ֧ԧ էӧ ѧܧ֧ܧ II (404-358), ا 8 . է .. ֧ӧӧѧݧ ܧߧ ѧܧڧۧܧ ѧӧ, ܧ էӧ֧ԧݧ ߧѧѧէ֧ߧڧ ѧڧڧۧܧڧ ӧۧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ѧ֧ ڧߧ - ާا֧ ݧ֧ԧ֧ߧէѧߧ ֧ާڧѧާڧէ էѧا ӧݧ ѧ ڧڧ. էߧ ڧ էܧާ֧ߧ ԧӧڧ, ѧ ҧѧߧڧѧ ӧ٧ӧѧ էݧ ާ ӧۧܧ ڧ ѧܧڧ ԧէ. ѧէ ѧܧڧ ѧڧڧۧܧڧ ѧ֧ ҧѧ֧ ֧ߧߧ. ֧ڧ, ӧ ӧ֧ާ ӧۧߧ ڧէڧ ڧڧ ҧѧܧڧۧ ߧѧѧݧ ӧڧݧ ܧѧ֧ӧ ٧ߧڧܧ ѧڧڧ֧ۧ, ֧֧ݧ ߧ ߧ ڧէڧ.
7-6 ӧ. է .. է֧ӧߧ֧ҧѧܧڧۧܧ ѧӧ ӧѧӧѧݧ ֧ڧڧ էݧڧ ѧߧ, ѧܧѧէѧ ѧѧѧߧ, ӧܧݧѧݧ ֧ҧ ѧԧڧѧߧ ԧ. ٧է֧ݧڧ ҧѧܧڧۧܧڧ ާѧ֧ ڧ ٧ݧ, ܧѧާߧ ҧߧ٧ ߧڧܧѧݧ ݧѧӧ ڧѧ, ֧ڧ, ӧ. ߧ֧ۧڧ ԧէ ѧݧѧԧѧݧڧ ߧ ާ֧ ٧ݧ֧, -ԧѧߧ, ٧ߧܧ ѧڧѧҧ. ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧڧ ԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ڧ٧էѧݧ ӧڧէ֧ ҧ ڧݧ ҧѧܧڧۧܧԧ ԧէ - ާߧ ڧѧէ֧ݧ, ӧ٧ӧѧӧ ߧѧ ӧާ اڧݧڧѧާ, ֧ާ֧ݧ֧ߧߧާ ާѧ֧ܧڧާ ٧ۧӧ֧ߧߧާ ۧܧѧާ. ӧڧߧ ڧ ڧ֧: "ڧէ ѧܧڧ ҧԧѧ ѧ٧ߧҧѧ٧ߧ. ߧ֧ܧ ާ֧ѧ է֧֧ӧ ӧڧߧԧѧէߧڧܧ էѧ ڧ٧ҧڧݧڧ ߧ ݧէ, ߧ ӧ ѧ ާߧԧڧݧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧڧܧ. է ӧ ާԧܧѧ, ѧ ֧֧ ݧ֧, ѧݧߧ ٧֧ާݧ ѧӧݧ ѧҧڧ". ߧӧߧ ٧ѧߧڧ֧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ҧݧ ݧڧӧߧ ٧֧ާݧ֧է֧ݧڧ. ֧ާѧݧӧѧاߧ ݧ اڧ٧ߧ ҧ֧ӧ ڧԧѧݧ ֧ާ֧ݧ ԧӧݧ.

֧ӧ֧ߧ ԧӧ ڧ ֧էߧ֧ѧ٧ڧѧܧԧ ާ֧اէ֧ ڧ٧է֧ӧݧ ܧߧݧڧӧѧ ֧٧, ާڧߧѧ֧ާ ܧѧ ӧѧڧ٧ѧ "ӧ֧", ӧѧѧ٧ާڧ - ֧ڧߧܧ ߧѧէڧ, ѧާڧ - էѧ ڧѧߧ ѧҧߧ. ֧ӧߧ ܧݧ ֧٧ާ, ѧ٧֧ߧߧѧ ѧѧҧܧ ӧا֧ߧڧ VIII ӧ֧ܧ, ߧѧڧӧѧݧ էӧ ݧ֧. ֧ߧ ڧѧ ܧѧݧ֧ߧէѧ ֧٧ާڧ֧ۧ, ӧ֧էڧ ֧ 1292 ԧէ է .. ֧٧ ҧ էݧ ӧ֧ԧ ֧ԧڧߧ ӧ ٧֧ާݧ֧ "ۧѧߧѧ ӧѧۧѧ" ӧ֧, ֧ߧ է֧ӧߧڧ ܧݧ. էѧӧ֧ߧߧ ҧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ֧٧ާ ֧ӧӧѧݧ ا 7-6 ӧ. է ..
֧ݧԧڧ֧ܧڧ էѧߧߧ ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ, ӧ ӧ ֧ӧ֧ 1-ԧ ֧ݧ֧ڧ է .. ֧ԧڧߧ ҧݧ ٧էѧߧ ާߧѧ ڧڧԧѧڧߧߧѧ ֧, ڧѧѧ ڧ ާէѧ. ֧֧էڧߧ 6 . է .. ֧٧ ҧ ܧ֧ ֧ѧާ, ܧ ӧӧ٧ڧݧ ڧ ֧٧ާ էѧԧ֧ߧߧ ܧѧާߧ, ڧ٧է֧ݧڧ ԧߧѧ, ӧ֧ݧڧ, ֧ާ֧ݧ֧ߧߧڧܧ. ڧ ڧ֧ݧ ѧӧݧݧڧ էݧ ۧܧ ѧܧڧ էӧ.
ڧѧߧڧ ڧ֧ݧӧ էӧ ѧڧ I ٧ѧ ҧѧ֧ ڧӧ٧ ֧ާߧ-ڧߧ֧ԧ ѧާӧ֧ ڧ ֧٧ާ. 5-4 ӧ. է .. ֧٧ էҧڧӧѧ֧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާ ֧. IV-III ӧ֧ܧ է .. ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ֧٧ާڧۧܧѧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ, ڧ٧ӧ֧֧ ܧߧ ܧݧӧ-ѧէާڧߧڧѧڧӧߧ ֧ߧ, ѧܧѧ ֧٧ڧէ֧ߧڧ - ѧ-ܧѧݧ, է֧ӧߧڧ ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧, ѧ ҧ֧ӧѧڧ - -ݧԧѧ-ܧѧݧ. ֧֧ܧڧ ڧߧڧܧ ҧѧ, ٧ڧާ 329-328 . է .. ֧٧ާڧۧܧڧ ѧ ѧڧާѧ ٧ѧܧݧڧ ާڧߧ էԧӧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ѧܧ֧էߧܧڧ.

334 ԧէ է .. ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ߧѧѧ ߧ ٧ڧ. ܧڧ ѧݧ ٧ڧ, ڧڧ, ڧߧڧܧڧ, ԧڧ֧, ѧ, ӧ֧ߧ 329 ԧէ, ֧֧ۧէ ԧߧ ֧ҧ֧ ڧߧէܧ, ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ӧԧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ. ѧѧ ѧܧڧ ԧէ (ԧէڧѧߧ) ֧, ڧߧӧڧ ڧ ѧ ڧާ ѧܧ֧ܧ, ٧ߧѧ ڧҧݧڧا֧ߧڧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ѧӧݧ֧ ѧܧڧ էڧ ٧ ާէѧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ԧէ. ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ܧߧ ֧֧ѧӧڧݧ ֧֧ ާէѧ. ֧ ߧ ާ ާ֧ѧ ֧ާ, ާ ާ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ҧ ݧڧ֧ ӧҧէ ӧڧާ ߧ֧էѧӧߧڧާ ߧߧڧܧѧާ ڧѧާ֧ߧ ѧѧ֧ߧ. ߧ ڧݧѧݧ ӧڧ ԧߧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ֧էݧا֧ߧڧ֧ ӧݧѧ էݧ ٧ѧӧѧ ֧. ѧѧܧ (c֧ӧ֧-ӧߧѧ ѧ էݧڧߧ ѧܧѧէѧ) ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ܧ֧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ܧ֧֧. ѧӧڧ ѧѧܧѧߧէ ԧѧߧڧ٧, ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ ٧֧ާݧ ѧܧ, էѧ.
էԧ ާѧܧ֧էߧ ӧ֧ڧݧ ڧݧߧ ڧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ާ֧ߧԧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ - ԧ֧ ѧߧ. ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ҧ ا֧ݧ ѧߧ֧. ݧ ߧѧѧݧ ӧѧߧڧ "ڧ֧ߧ ӧѧӧѧ", ܧ ֧֧ҧڧݧ ާѧܧ֧էߧܧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ߧ. էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ӧѧ ԧէڧۧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ڧѧާ֧ߧ. ԧէڧۧѧ ڧާܧߧݧ ҧѧܧڧۧ. ڧѧާ֧ ܧ ӧڧ ڧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ѧէڧ ާѧܧ֧էߧܧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ ѧѧܧѧߧէ. ҧ֧֧ԧ էѧ ܧѧѧۧڧ ܧ ާѧܧ֧էߧߧѧާ ҧݧ ֧ߧ ܧ֧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէڧ ѧݧߧ (ݧ֧ܧѧߧէڧ ѧ). ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ֧ߧ ٧ѧܧݧѧ֧ ާڧ ѧܧѧާ ҧѧ֧ ߧӧߧ ڧݧ ڧ ڧѧާ֧ߧ. ֧ߧ 329 ֧ߧ 328 . ֧ԧݧߧ ܧѧѧ֧ݧߧ ѧܧڧ ԧ֧ܧ-ާѧܧ֧էߧܧڧ ӧۧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ԧէ ߧ ڧߧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ اڧէѧ֧ާԧ ֧٧ݧѧ.
ݧ էӧ ݧ֧ ڧ٧ߧڧ֧ݧߧ ާѧݧ֧ߧ ҧҧ ާ֧ߧ֧ ѧܧڧܧ ڧէ֧ ߧ ҧݧڧا֧ߧڧ ާ֧ߧ ٧ߧѧ. ӧڧߧ ڧ ڧ֧: "֧ ڧ ӧѧӧѧ, ܧ ܧڧݧڧ, ӧ֧ݧ֧ էѧӧѧ ԧէ ٧֧ާݧ ֧, ܧ ӧӧѧ ߧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ". ֧٧ݧѧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ էѧ֧ ڧӧݧ֧ ߧ ӧ ߧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ڧݧ ާ֧ߧ ާڧӧѧ ӧڧߧܧڧ ܧߧڧߧԧ֧ߧ ڧ ԧէڧ֧ۧ ҧѧܧڧ֧ۧ. ֧ߧ 328 . ݧ ֧ѧ֧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ڧѧާ֧ߧ, ܧ ڧԧӧѧ֧ ҧ ҧ֧اڧ ߧ, ԧէ ߧ֧էѧӧߧڧ ٧ߧڧܧ ܧѧ٧ߧ ֧ԧ. ܧڧ ԧߧ ܧ֧ ڧ֧ߧ ܧڧѧ ԧѧ ڧѧ, ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ا֧ߧڧ ߧ է֧ ܧڧѧ - ܧѧߧ, ֧ ѧާ էߧڧӧڧ ާ֧ߧ ٧ߧѧ. ѧӧڧ ѧ֧ ԧէ ߧ֧ܧ֧ԧ ڧ, էߧԧ ڧ ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ԧէڧۧܧ ٧ߧѧ, ֧֧֧է֧ ߧ ߧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ, ٧ѧܧѧߧڧӧѧ֧ ܧ֧ߧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ. ֧֧ۧէ ֧֧ ާէѧ, ֧ ا ݧ֧ 327 ԧէ ֧֧ӧѧݧڧ ֧֧ ڧߧէܧ ߧѧѧ ӧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ڧߧէڧۧܧڧ .

ݧ ԧڧҧ֧ݧ ڧѧާ֧ߧ ܧߧ֧ߧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ԧէڧۧܧ-ҧѧܧڧۧܧ ӧ֧ܧ 327 . ֧էߧ ٧ڧ ӧէڧ ާڧӧ ڧާ֧ڧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ. ֧ߧߧ է ާ֧ߧ ٧ߧѧ ӧܧݧѧ ֧ԧ ѧާڧ. 323 ԧէ, ܧԧէ է ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ էݧ ӧ֧ ާ֧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ, ԧ֧֧ܧڧ ֧ݧ֧ߧ ԧէ ѧܧڧ ҧѧݧ 20 000 ֧ڧߧ֧ 3 000 ӧѧէߧڧܧ, ߧѧާ֧ڧӧѧ ӧ֧ߧ ߧ էڧߧ. ѧ֧֧֧ ҧ ݧѧ ݧܧӧէ֧ ֧էڧܧܧ, էӧڧاߧڧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ. ާ էѧݧ ѧ٧اڧ ֧֧ҧڧ ҧ֧ԧݧ֧. ѧѧ ԧէڧѧߧ ڧ ާ֧ߧ ӧ֧ݧާ, ӧӧڧ է ާѧܧ֧էߧ, ҧ ާ֧֧. ԧ ާ֧ߧڧ ާѧܧ֧էߧߧڧ ڧݧڧ, ѧӧݧӧڧ ߧ֧ܧ ӧ֧ާ էӧާ ѧѧڧާ - ԧէڧѧߧ ѧܧڧ֧. ݧ 315 ԧէ ӧ ߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧߧ ѧѧ ڧ ާ֧ߧ ٧ߧѧ ҧݧ ٧ѧާ֧ߧ֧ߧ ԧ֧ܧѧާ ާѧܧ֧էߧߧѧާ, ٧ ڧܧݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ܧڧѧ (֧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ) ڧѧߧ ѧ (֧ ֧էڧܧܧ).
312 ԧէ էߧާ ڧ ݧܧӧէ֧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ, ֧ݧ֧ӧܧ, էѧݧѧ ѧӧڧݧߧڧ. ܧ ѧڧڧ ӧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ է էѧ ߧէ, ֧ԧ ߧڧ 1 ֧ (էڧӧڧۧ ҧѧܧ ֧ݧ֧ӧܧ ѧާ - է֧ ڧѧާ֧ߧ) ӧݧѧէ֧ ا ҧݧ֧ ѧ ѧ٧ڧѧܧڧ ֧ڧڧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ. ֧ڧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ҧݧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧ էߧ ѧѧڧ, ܧ ӧէڧݧ ԧէڧѧߧ ѧܧڧ ѧԧڧѧߧ. ֧٧ ߧ ҧ էڧߧ֧ ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧէѧ. ݧ֧էߧڧ ֧ާ֧ߧڧէѧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ѧߧ ӧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާ. ֧ݧ֧ӧ ߧڧ է֧ݧݧ ҧݧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ӧڧ ٧ڧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ. ܧڧӧߧ ڧݧڧ ܧ֧ ԧէ, ٧ѧ֧ݧ֧ާ ԧ֧ܧѧާ. ڧ֧ܧѧ ѧէڧڧ ڧڧӧѧ֧ ֧ݧ֧ӧܧ ڧ֧ݧӧ 75 ߧӧ ԧէ. ڧݧ ѧާ էѧݧ֧ߧߧ, ҧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧߧڧ, ߧڧ ԧ ߧڧڧ ٧ ܧѧ. ֧էݧا֧ߧڧ, ѧݧѧԧѧݧ ҧݧѧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧԧ ѧܧ֧ߧ (ԧէڧ ѧߧܧ) ڧݧ ֧ԧѧߧܧ էݧڧߧ. 60- ԧէ III ӧ֧ܧ է .. ѧܧѧ ֧ӧӧѧ ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧէܧڧ ާߧ֧ߧ էӧ, ӧܧѧӧڧ ٧ݧ ֧֧ҧߧ ާߧ֧, ֧ڧާ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ܧߧ ߧާڧߧѧݧ. ߧѧѧݧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧէܧԧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ ߧڧ II (261-247 ԧ. է ..) ֧ԧ ѧѧ ѧܧڧ ڧէ ֧ܧѧߧڧ ާߧ֧ ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧէܧԧ ҧѧ٧, ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ֧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ѧӧߧާڧ. ѧܧڧ, ԧէڧߧ էԧڧ ҧݧѧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ էݧاѧݧ اڧ ӧ֧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧ اڧ٧ߧ, ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ݧڧѧӧ֧ۧ ٧ѧѧէߧ ҧݧѧ֧ ѧӧ ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧէ.

-

256 . է .. ԧէѧӧ ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧէ է֧ݧڧݧڧ ѧѧڧ ѧڧ, ѧܧڧ ԧէڧѧߧ. ѧѧ ѧܧڧ ڧէ ӧ٧ԧݧѧڧ ֧ҧ ѧ֧ ߧѧѧ ҧҧ ٧ ԧ֧ԧ֧ާߧڧ ֧ԧڧߧ. ӧ֧ ߧ ѧܧڧէ ٧ѧӧѧڧݧ ӧݧѧ ѧڧ. ԧէڧѧߧ էڧߧڧݧѧ ѧܧڧ. 230 ԧէ է .. ѧѧ ԧէڧѧߧ ӧڧէ֧ ӧ֧ ֧֧ާߧڧܧ ڧէ. ֧اէ ֧ܧ-ѧܧڧۧܧڧ ѧӧ ѧڧ֧ ݧ ߧߧѧ ҧҧ ڧ-٧ ҧݧѧէѧߧڧ ԧӧާ ާ. 209-208 . է .. ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧէܧڧ ѧ ߧڧ III ֧ݧڧܧڧ ӧ֧ѧ֧ ӧߧ էݧ ӧѧߧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧݧԧ ާԧ֧ӧ է֧اѧӧ ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧէ. ѧߧ֧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ѧڧ, 207 . ߧѧڧߧѧ֧ ӧ֧ߧߧ է֧ۧӧڧ ڧ ֧ܧ-ѧܧڧ. ۧܧ ӧڧէ֧ާ ֧֧ݧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ߧڧ ѧէڧ ݧڧ - ѧܧ. ѧէ ٧ѧߧݧѧ ߧ էӧ ԧէ. ѧܧ, ӧڧէ֧ էҧڧӧѧ֧ ٧ѧܧݧ֧ߧڧ ާڧߧԧ էԧӧ ߧڧ էѧ֧ ߧڧ ӧ֧ ҧ֧ӧ ݧߧ. ӧ ֧֧է, ӧڧէ֧ާ, ֧ާ֧ڧ ݧѧ֧ ا֧ߧ ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧէܧ ڧߧ֧. ѧا֧ߧڧ, ߧѧߧ֧֧ߧߧ ڧާݧߧѧާ ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧէѧ ҧڧӧ ѧԧߧ֧ڧ, ܧӧѧ֧ էݧ ֧ܧ-ѧܧڧۧܧԧ ѧӧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ܧѧߧڧ ߧ اߧ ܧߧا֧ӧ, ѧߧ֧ ٧ߧ ֧ݧ֧ӧܧڧէѧ.
ܧݧ 187 . է .. ֧ާ֧ڧ, ߧѧݧ֧էӧѧӧڧ ֧ , ٧ѧӧ֧ӧӧѧ֧ ѧڧ ߧѧѧӧݧ֧ ߧէڧ. 171 . ӧ ӧ֧ާ էݧڧ֧ݧߧԧ ӧڧ ֧ާ֧ڧ, ٧ѧէ֧اѧӧ֧ԧ ӧۧܧѧާ ֧ӧ֧ߧ ߧէڧ, ӧݧѧ ѧܧѧ ٧ѧӧѧӧѧ֧ էڧ ڧ ֧ԧ ݧܧӧէ֧ - ӧܧѧڧ. ѧӧ ӧܧѧڧէ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ "ѧӧ ԧէ". ڧѧۧܧڧ ڧߧڧܧ ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ, 165 . է .. ڧ ֧ާڧ֧ ڧݧ ֧ا, ܧ ֧֧ѧӧڧݧڧ ֧֧ էѧ ߧѧѧӧڧݧڧ ҧ֧֧ԧѧ ާէѧ. էѧݧ ٧ѧӧ֧ӧѧ ѧܧڧ. 155 ԧէ ӧܧѧڧ ӧ ӧ֧ާ էߧԧ ڧ է ҧ ҧڧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ߧ. ާ ا ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ߧڧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ֧ܧ-ߧէڧۧܧԧ ѧӧ. 141-128 ԧ. ߧ ѧէ֧ߧڧ ֧ܧ-ѧܧڧۧܧԧ ѧӧ. ٧ާاߧ, ݧ ٧ѧӧѧ اѧާ ѧܧڧ ѧ ֧ݧڧܧ ѧߧڧ ӧݧѧ ѧѧާڧѧէѧ ڧݧ ѧڧ. ӧ ݧ֧ڧ ӧاէ֧ߧڧ ݧݧڧߧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ާڧ ѧӧڧݧ ԧݧҧܧڧ ݧ֧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ. ԧ ѧܧڧ ѧݧ ѧѧڧާ, ڧѧӧڧާڧ ߧ ݧݧڧߧ-ާѧܧ֧էߧܧڧ ӧ֧ߧߧ է. ٧ߧڧܧݧ ߧӧ ԧէ (֧ѧ, ֧). ֧֧ܧڧ ٧ ҧ ٧ܧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ӧ֧ܧ. ֧ԧڧߧ ֧ܧѧߧڧݧڧ ާߧ֧ ԧ֧֧ܧԧ ѧߧէѧ. ѧߧ֧ ԧ֧֧ܧڧ ҧԧ, ԧ֧֧ܧѧ ݧڧ֧ѧ ԧ֧֧ܧڧ ֧ѧ ѧݧ էߧ ާ֧ߧ ݧڧ. ڧէڧ ڧߧ֧ ѧէڧڧ ާ֧ߧ ԧ֧֧ܧ ܧݧ.

ڧѧۧܧڧ ڧڧ -ߧ ӧ֧ ߧڧܧ ҧѧ֧ ܧ֧ӧ ԧէѧӧ ѧߧԧ, ڧݧ ѧߧէ٧ ѧߧԧ, ԧէ "ҧѧ էߧ ֧ا". ѧߧڧߧ ѧӧ ԧէѧӧ ѧߧԧ ߧ ާڧߧѧ֧, ߧ ߧ֧ ԧӧڧ ӧ֧, ѧܧا ѧѧҧѧѧ, ԧէ ߧѧէ ѧܧѧާ ѧѧާ ާڧߧѧ ܧѧߧܧ. ҧݧ֧ ٧էߧڧ ܧڧѧۧܧڧ ߧڧܧѧ, ѧߧԧ ҧݧ էڧߧ֧ߧ ӧ ѧߧ ֧ӧ֧ ާէѧ: ѧ, ѧڧѧҧ, ѧۧ ѧѧܧԧѧߧ, ѧܧ֧ߧܧڧ ѧ٧ڧ ֧ӧ֧ߧѧ ѧ ֧٧ާ. ڧѧۧܧڧ ڧߧڧܧ ҧѧ, ѧӧڧ֧ݧ ԧէѧӧ ѧߧԧ ߧڧݧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ "ѧ-ӧ". ֧ߧ, "էاѧҧԧ" - ѧ ٧ӧڧ ܧڧѧۧܧ ѧߧܧڧڧ. ѧ ݧӧڧߧ 2 . է .. - 1 . .. ҧݧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ֧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ԧ ާԧ֧ӧ ԧէѧӧ ѧߧԧ. ֧էݧاڧ֧ݧߧ ܧڧ٧ڧ ѧߧԧ, ܧԧէ اߧ ܧѧڧߧѧ ԧ֧ԧ֧ާߧڧ ڧߧѧէݧ֧اѧݧ ֧اѧ, ֧ӧ֧-ӧߧ - ߧߧѧ, ӧߧӧ ާ֧ߧڧݧ է֧ާ ݧѧҧݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ѧӧ ֧ا֧ ѧܧڧ. 2-1 ӧ. է .. ѧߧԧ ҧݧ ֧էڧߧ ܧ ߧѧݧѧէڧ ֧ܧѧߧܧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ާߧ֧ է֧ߧ֧اߧ ҧѧ֧ߧڧ. ܧѧ֧ӧ ҧѧ٧ ڧ٧ҧѧߧ ާߧ֧ߧ ڧ, ֧ӧӧѧӧڧ ֧ڧ ֧ܧ-ҧѧܧڧۧܧԧ ѧӧ.
ѧԧݧէߧ ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧߧ ާѧ֧ڧѧݧߧ ܧݧ էѧ ѧܧܧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ֧٧ާ, ѧߧ, ܧ֧ اѧߧҧѧ-ѧݧ ѧӧҧ֧֧اߧ ֧٧ާ. ֧ ѧ٧ާ֧ 200170 ҧߧ֧֧ߧ ֧ߧѧާ ڧ ӧԧ ܧڧڧ ӧ 10-11 . ӧ ӧߧ ڧէ֧ ڧܧѧ ݧڧ. ܧߧ ݧڧ ӧܧ ѧܧ ٧էѧߧڧ - ҧڧߧߧԧ ӧڧݧڧ ԧߧ ӧѧݧߧ ӧ٧ӧ֧ߧڧ֧ էݧ ާ֧ѧݧݧڧ֧ܧԧ ا֧ӧ֧ߧߧڧܧ. ܧѧߧԧۧܧڧ ֧ڧ ҧӧѧݧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧ ӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ: ٧ѧڧ٧, ܧݧ ߧѧڧ, ܧݧ ڧ, ӧݧ֧ߧߧԧ ҧѧ٧ ܧߧ. էߧڧ ڧ ҧݧڧ էڧا֧ߧڧ ԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ҧݧѧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧڧܧ, ӧ٧ӧѧ֧ާ ܧݧ ѧߧԧ, ӧݧ֧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧ֧, ݧڧӧڧ ٧ا ڧܧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧڧ: ڧާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ҧ ާܧߧԧ է֧ ا֧ݧ ѧߧڧ ӧѧէߧڧܧ ߧ ٧ѧڧ֧ߧߧ ҧߧ֧ ܧߧ. ا֧ߧڧ ӧѧէߧڧܧ ݧ ڧ ݧܧ, ܧ էݧڧߧߧԧ ާ֧. էѧݧߧ֧ۧڧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ էҧѧ ԧէѧӧ ѧߧԧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ֧ߧ ާѧݧ. ֧ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ, ҧݧ ݧ ߧ ӧܧݧ֧ߧ ѧ ѧߧܧԧ ѧӧ. ԧݧѧߧ ܧڧѧۧܧڧ ڧߧڧܧѧ, ݧ ߧѧѧݧ ߧѧ֧ ѧߧԧ ѧߧ֧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ѧާ֧ݧߧ, էڧߧ ֧ҧ ߧѧ (ѧ-ѧݧѧߧ) էԧڧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧ.

ا֧ߧڧ ا֧ ֧֧էڧߧ II ӧ֧ܧ է .. ֧ܧ-ҧѧܧڧۧܧ ѧӧ ڧӧէڧ ܧߧѧ֧ݧߧާ ֧ԧ ѧѧէ. ֧ӧߧѧѧݧߧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ ا֧ ߧѧէڧݧڧ ֧ӧ֧ߧ ѧܧڧ (ߧ ԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ ѧէاڧܧڧѧߧ). ѧߧܧ ѧӧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧݧ ֧ӧ ݧӧڧߧ ڧݧ ֧֧էڧߧ I ӧ֧ܧ ߧѧ֧ ֧٧ݧѧ ӧ٧ӧ֧ߧڧ اڧۧܧԧ ܧߧا֧ӧ ѧ ( ܧڧѧۧܧ ֧֧էѧ - ۧѧ), ӧڧէڧާ, ӧ֧ӧ֧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ էߧԧ ڧ ݧ֧ާ֧ ا֧. ߧӧѧ֧ݧ֧ ѧӧ ҧ ҧԧ (ܧߧ٧), ٧ѧ֧ ѧ էاݧ ѧէڧ (ѧէڧ I), ܧ ܧѧߧ ٧ѧӧѧڧݧ ҧݧ ѧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧԧ ԧѧߧڧѧߧ ѧܧڧѧߧ. ֧ԧ ֧֧ާߧڧܧ ڧާ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ ܧѧ ҧݧ ڧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧѧ ѧ ߧէڧ. ӧ֧ԧ ߧѧڧӧ֧ԧ ѧӧ֧ ѧߧܧ ѧӧ էڧԧݧ ѧߧڧܧ (֧էݧاڧ֧ݧߧ, 78-123ԧ. ..). ݧڧ ֧֧ӧէڧ ڧ ѧܧڧ ֧ѧӧѧ, ֧ڧڧ ڧѧ֧ է ߧէڧ ѧߧ.
֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ֧ӧ֧ߧѧ ԧѧߧڧ ܧѧߧܧڧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ էڧݧ ڧѧܧާ ֧ҧ ߧ ԧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ, ԧէ ԧߧ էѧ (֧ҧ֧ߧ) ҧݧ ӧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧ ާߧ ԧѧߧڧߧ ֧ߧ. ߧӧ ԧէ, ѧߧѧӧݧڧӧѧ ԧӧ ӧ٧ ߧէڧ֧, ڧѧ֧ ڧާܧ ڧާ֧ڧ֧. ѧܧܧѧ ާ֧ ߧѧۧէ֧ߧ ܧѧߧܧڧ ާߧ֧ ڧԧܧ ڧ ܧ, ڧ٧ԧӧݧ֧ߧߧѧ ܧѧߧܧڧ ާѧ֧. ѧߧܧڧ ֧ڧ ӧܧԧ ӧߧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ էڧԧݧ ѧڧ֧ܧ. ҧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ է֧ݧݧ ڧ֧ݧӧ էӧ ѧާ. էӧ ܧѧߧܧڧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ѧݧѧߧ ҧէէڧۧܧڧ ѧާѧ ѧ ֧ާ֧٧ ѧݧӧ֧٧ڧߧ ѧߧڧݧڧ ӧܧէا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ߧѧ֧ߧߧ ڧ ܧݧ. ѧܧܧѧ ѧݧѧߧ, ѧݧӧ֧٧ڧߧ֧, ۧѧާ ѧ֧ݧԧѧާ ҧݧ ҧߧѧا֧ߧ ҧߧ٧ӧ է, ڧ٧ߧ էӧ֧ߧڧܧ, ٧֧ܧѧݧ, ֧ܧѧߧ ӧ֧ݧڧߧ ڧ٧է֧ݧڧ, ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧڧ ӧܧ ާѧ֧ӧ ܧѧߧܧڧ ֧ާ֧ݧ֧ߧߧڧܧ.
ߧӧ ܧߧާڧܧ ڧާ֧ڧ ҧݧ ڧڧԧѧڧߧߧ ٧֧ާݧ֧է֧ݧڧ. ݧ ӧ֧ߧڧ اѧۧߧ ڧާ֧ߧݧڧ էҧ֧ߧڧ. ֧էԧ ֧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧݧ ԧߧߧ ܧӧէӧ. ѧܧܧѧ է֧ӧߧ֧ԧ ֧ާ֧٧ ҧߧѧا֧ߧ ߧѧէڧ, ӧݧߧ֧ߧߧ ߧ ߧӧ ѧѧާ֧ۧܧԧ ڧާ. ѧߧܧ ܧڧӧߧ ڧާ ѧѧܧ֧ڧ٧ӧѧݧ ֧ѧߧڧ֧ ԧݧߧ, ܧӧѧէѧߧ ܧԧݧ ҧܧ ҧݧ ڧܧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧ. ѧߧڧܧ ѧߧܧ ѧӧ ڧէڧ ҧէէڧ٧, ܧ ӧܧ ѧߧӧڧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ֧ ܧѧ. էߧѧܧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ էݧاѧ֧ ֧ӧӧѧ ٧ѧڧ٧, ѧܧا ާ֧ߧ ֧էߧ֧ѧ٧ڧѧܧڧ, ڧߧէڧۧܧڧ, ڧѧߧܧڧ, ԧ֧֧ܧڧ ֧ԧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧݧ. ܧߧ ֧ӧ ݧӧڧߧ 3 . .. ѧߧܧ ѧӧ ֧ܧѧڧݧ ӧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ. ѧܧڧ-ѧڧѧ ӧݧ ѧ ѧѧߧڧէܧ ڧާ֧ڧ ߧ ѧӧѧ ҧԧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ, ѧӧݧ֧ާԧ ݧ֧ߧѧާ ѧܧԧ էާ ѧѧߧڧէ, ߧڧӧڧާ ڧ ܧѧߧѧ.

էѧӧ ѧݧڧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧݧ ߧ ѧ ֧ڧڧ ѧߧܧ ڧާ֧ڧ ݧ ֧ ѧէ֧ߧڧ. ߧӧߧѧ ާѧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ѧߧڧާѧݧѧ ٧֧ާݧ֧է֧ݧڧ֧, ѧ էݧاѧݧ ӧ֧ ܧ֧ӧ ҧѧ اڧ٧ߧ. ڧާ֧ߧߧ ڧߧڧܧѧ ҧѧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ѧݧڧѧ, ߧѧڧߧѧ 457 ԧէ, ܧԧէ ڧ ѧ ѧߧӧѧ էڧߧڧ ֧ҧ ѧԧѧߧڧѧ, ѧڧѧ ѧէѧѧ. ߧڧܧ էѧ ܧ, ߧ ڧӧ֧ڧӧ ܧѧڧߧ ӧۧ ѧѧߧڧէܧԧ ѧߧ ڧ ѧݧڧ. ѧѧߧڧէܧڧ ѧ ֧, ѧѧ ѧ֧ ܧѧߧڧ ѧݧڧ, ӧڧ ڧ ߧڧ, էߧѧܧ ѧ ݧ֧ ҧѧڧݧ ٧ ާ ڧ٧ѧߧڧ, ܧѧ٧ӧѧ, ߧѧ֧ӧڧ ܧ֧ӧߧڧܧ ӧڧ ԧ٧ էݧ ߧ֧. ֧٧ݧѧ ֧ ҧ ӧҧاէ֧ ٧ ӧܧ, ֧էѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ڧާ֧ѧ ڧ٧ѧߧڧ. ֧ ҧ֧ѧ էѧ ѧݧڧѧ ԧѧߧڧߧ ԧ ѧݧܧѧ, ߧ ߧ ӧݧߧڧ ҧ֧ѧߧڧ ֧էڧߧ ӧ , ܧ ӧߧӧ ܧߧڧݧ ߧ֧էѧߧ, ֧, ѧӧڧ ѧݧڧ ٧ѧݧاߧڧܧ ާѧݧݧ֧ߧ֧ԧ ߧ, ֧֧ߧڧ էӧ ݧ֧ ӧݧѧڧӧѧ ҧݧ էѧߧ. 484 ԧէ ݧ ֧ էڧ ֧٧. ѧ ӧާ֧ ӧۧܧ ѧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ ڧԧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ӧڧߧѧާ ѧݧڧ ӧݧ ާ ԧڧ. ѧݧڧ, ܧߧѧ֧ݧߧ ѧ٧ҧڧ ֧٧, ߧѧݧاڧݧ ا֧ݧ էѧߧ ߧ ѧ ٧ѧߧݧ ֧. ѧ֧ ٧ѧߧݧ էݧڧߧ ѧҧݧ ֧ߧէاѧ, ٧ѧӧ֧ӧѧݧ ѧѧѧ, , ѧԧѧ ѧ.
ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, ߧ ҧ֧էڧߧڧݧ ާԧ ֧էڧߧ է֧اѧӧ ֧ߧѧݧߧ ٧ڧ, ӧߧ ѧ, ֧ӧ֧ߧ ѧ ߧէڧ ߧ ܧ֧ѧ. ߧ ֧٧ ѧӧѧէ, ӧ֧էڧ է֧ӧ ѧݧڧܧ էӧ ܧѧ ٧ѧݧاߧڧ, ѧ էݧاѧ ӧݧѧڧӧѧ ѧݧڧѧ էѧߧ. ݧӧѧ ӧڧ٧ѧߧڧۧܧԧ ڧڧܧ ܧڧ (6 .), ѧݧڧ "ѧӧݧݧڧ էߧڧ ѧ֧ ҧݧէѧݧ ާ֧اէ ҧ ֧էާ ѧӧ֧էݧڧӧ ߧڧ ߧ ا ާ֧֧ (ӧڧ٧ѧߧڧ֧ۧ) ֧". ٧֧ӧ "֧ݧܧӧԧ " ѧݧڧ ڧߧڧާѧݧ է֧֧ݧߧ ѧڧ ާ֧اէߧѧէߧ ԧӧݧ. ߧ ԧӧѧݧ ѧߧ, ڧ٧ѧߧڧ֧, ߧէڧ֧, ڧѧ֧. ڧ֧ܧڧ ֧էѧߧڧ ѧݧڧ ӧۧߧ ֧٧ ѧߧڧݧڧ "ѧ-ߧѧާ", ԧէ ѧا֧ߧ ҧҧ ѧݧڧ ܧѧާ ѧܧѧ٧ ѧݧڧܧ ѧ ѧ֧է. ܧѧէ֧ާڧ .. ѧݧ ֧էݧѧԧѧ֧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ӧڧէ֧ ݧڧ ѧ֧է ڧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧݧ ڧ ӧڧ٧ѧߧڧۧܧڧ ڧߧڧܧ. ѧݧ ڧ ާ֧ ٧ ҧڧէ, ߧѧߧ֧֧ߧߧ ֧ԧ ا֧ߧ ѧ֧, ҧ֧اѧ ѧ, ֧էѧ ӧ ѧߧ ܧѧ. ѧݧڧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ҧ֧էڧߧݧ ҧݧ ڧݧ ߧѧէ, ֧ ӧ٧ѧߧ էߧӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ާߧԧڧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧ ڧ֧ ܧݧ. ѧڧ٧ ֧֧ݧ֧ѧ֧ ާ֧ߧާ ܧݧѧާ ߧѧڧ, ڧӧ, ڧ. ڧܧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ ҧէէڧ٧.

֧֧էڧߧ VI ӧ֧ܧ ܧܧڧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧ ݧѧ, ҧ֧էڧߧڧӧڧ ֧էߧڧާ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧѧާ, ٧էѧݧ "ѧާ ާԧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ ӧ֧ ܧ֧ӧ ڧާ֧ڧ էާߧԧݧܧԧ ֧ڧէ" - ܧܧڧ ܧѧԧѧߧѧ. ӧ ҧѧ, ާߧ ֧ާ, ӧ٧ԧݧѧӧڧݧ ҧڧߧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ. ܧ ާߧ ѧڧ ӧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ ӧߧ ѧ ܧѧԧѧߧѧ, ֧ԧ ҧѧ ֧ާ ҧ ٧ѧߧ ٧ѧѧէߧ ѧ ҧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ֧ ݧ֧ާ֧ ֧ާڧ֧ ާ֧اߧ ѧۧߧ ߧԧ ܧ֧ѧߧ. ܧѧߧڧ ߧ ٧ѧѧ ڧӧ֧ݧ ֧ԧ ڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧާ ѧݧڧܧԧ ԧէѧӧ. 563-567ԧ. ܧ ѧ٧ԧާڧݧ ѧݧڧܧ է֧اѧӧ ݧܧߧݧڧ ߧ ާէѧ ѧѧߧڧէܧڧ ѧߧ. ܧ ܧ ѧ ڧާ֧ݧ ݧڧ ѧݧڧ ҧ֧ԧ ڧӧߧڧܧ, ڧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ߧڧݧ էا֧ܧڧ ѧѧܧ֧, ѧڧߧѧ ߧڧӧѧ էѧا ا֧ߧڧݧ ߧ ܧܧ ѧ֧ӧߧ. ԧէ ا ܧ ѧ٧ԧާڧݧ ѧݧڧ, ާ֧اէ ߧڧާ ѧߧ ӧ٧ߧڧ ܧߧݧڧܧ. ֧ާݧ֧ߧڧ ӧݧѧէ֧ ӧѧاߧ֧ۧڧާ ԧӧާ ާ ҧӧӧѧݧ ߧѧا֧ߧڧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧ. ݧӧ ֧ާ ѧ ӧѧ ԧӧݧ ߧ ӧ֧ߧѧݧڧ ֧, ݧ֧ߧ ӧԧ ݧ֧էߧ֧ԧ ݧӧ ҧݧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧ. ݧ ԧ ܧ ֧ѧ ٧ ڧ٧ѧߧڧ֧ ߧѧѧ ҧҧ ѧߧ.
568-569 ԧ. ߧѧߧڧߧݧ ݧ, ӧڧէڧާ, էѧߧ ֧ӧ ݧӧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ѧߧڧѧ. ٧ѧڧާߧѧ ҧҧ ڧ٧ѧߧڧ ѧߧ, ӧݧ֧ܧѧ ڧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ ܧѧԧѧߧѧ, ӧ֧ާ ҧӧӧѧݧ ҧߧާ ݧܧ֧ӧԧ ԧէѧӧ . ܧ ӧ֧ڧݧ ֧ߧ ߧѧҧ֧ԧ ߧ ڧѧ, ݧѧҧݧ֧ߧߧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧާ ާѧާ, էҧڧݧڧ ҧݧ ֧ا֧ԧէߧ էѧߧ ӧڧէ ֧٧ ֧ݧܧ. 588 ԧէ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ ѧ-ڧ ٧ ڧ٧ѧߧڧ֧ ѧ٧ѧѧާ, ߧѧѧ ߧ ѧ, ߧ ҧ ѧ٧ҧڧ ҧڧ ѧѧߧڧէܧڧ ݧܧӧէ֧ ѧѧ-ҧڧߧ. ѧا֧ߧڧ ѧݧ ݧܧ ѧէܧ ܧѧԧѧߧѧ ѧѧէ ֧ԧ 80- ԧէѧ VII ӧ֧ܧ ߧ ӧߧ ٧ѧѧէߧ ѧ. ֧ӧ ݧӧڧߧ VII ӧ֧ܧ اڧ٧ߧ ٧ѧѧէߧԧ ܧѧԧѧߧѧ ߧѧާ֧ڧݧ է֧. ԧ ԧѧߧڧ էէڧݧ է ҧ֧֧ԧ ߧէ. اڧӧڧݧڧ ԧӧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ڧѧ֧ ѧߧ. ѧѧӧѧߧ է֧اѧݧڧ ާѧ ֧-ѧէا-ѧ-ѧާѧܧѧߧ-ѧ-ѧݧѧ- էѧݧ ѧ٧ڧѧ ߧԧ ܧ֧ѧߧ. ӧ֧ ܧѧѧӧѧߧ ӧ֧ѧݧ ԧէڧۧܧڧ ܧݧߧڧ, ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ ާ֧ է֧ۧӧڧ ҧ֧֧ۧާ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ܧѧѧӧѧߧ. ܧݧ 630 ԧէ ܧڧѧۧ, ߧ֧էѧӧߧڧ ٧ߧڧܧ ܧ, ߧѧߧ ڧ ֧ѧ֧ ѧا֧ߧڧ. ܧߧ VII ӧ֧ܧ ٧ѧѧէ ߧѧէӧڧԧѧ֧ ߧӧ ާߧ ӧѧ - ѧѧҧ, էڧߧڧӧڧ ӧ֧ ӧݧѧ ֧ߧѧݧߧ ٧ڧ. ѧѧէߧܧܧڧ ܧѧԧѧߧѧ ֧ܧѧڧ ӧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ 704., ܧԧէ ӧݧѧ ֧ާڧ֧ ֧֧ݧ ܧ ԧ֧֧.

IV-VIII ӧ֧ܧ ԧէڧۧ ѧݧ ԧݧѧӧߧާ ֧էߧڧܧѧާ ԧӧݧ ѧݧߧ֧ԧ ܧ, ֧ߧѧݧߧ ٧ڧ ݧڧاߧ֧ԧ ܧ, ҧӧ֧ߧߧ , ԧѧߧڧ٧ӧѧ, ֧ԧݧߧ ާ֧اէߧѧէߧ ܧѧѧӧѧߧߧ ԧӧݧ ߧ ӧ֧ ا֧ߧڧ ֧ݧڧܧԧ ֧ݧܧӧԧ . ԧ ӧ֧ާ ֧էѧӧݧ ҧ ҧ֧ӧ ܧߧا֧ ӧݧߧ ԧէ, ֧է ܧ ӧէ֧ݧݧڧ ѧާѧܧѧߧ, ѧۧާ, ֧, ѧ֧, ڧѧ, ѧߧڧ, ѧ, ާݧ ߧէ. ӧ֧ ڧѧ ("֧ݧܧӧ ") ѧާԧ اߧԧ ֧֧ ѧ اߧ ѧ ߧԧ ܧ֧ѧߧ - է ѧާԧ ֧ӧ֧ߧԧ ֧֧ ֧ާڧ֧, ӧ٧ߧڧܧݧ ܧݧߧڧ ԧէڧ֧ۧ, ֧ӧӧѧӧڧ է XII ӧ֧ܧ .. ѧڧҧݧ֧ ܧߧ ԧէڧۧܧڧ ܧݧߧڧ ܧ֧ѧߧ ڧѧ ֧ӧӧѧݧ ѧܧڧ ԧէѧ ܧѧ, , ѧߧѧߧ, ѧߧا, ߧѧ, , ԧէ ԧէڧۧ اڧݧ ҧҧݧ֧ߧߧާ ҧڧߧѧާ. ݧܧ ߧѧߧ IV ӧ֧ܧ ԧէڧۧܧѧ ҧڧߧ ߧѧڧӧѧݧ ܧݧ 1000 ֧ݧӧ֧.
ߧ ӧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ "ܧڧѧۧܧڧާ". ֧اէߧѧէߧ ԧӧ ֧ѧڧ ܧߧݧڧӧѧݧڧ ҧԧѧާ ԧէڧۧܧڧާ էާѧާ ڧ ܧߧ ԧէ: ѧާѧܧѧߧէ, ѧۧܧ֧ߧէ է. ߧ ӧէ֧ݧݧ ܧ֧էڧ, ֧֧ ӧڧ ѧԧ֧ߧ ܧӧէڧݧ ԧӧާ է֧ݧܧѧާ. ڧڧ էڧߧѧڧ ѧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧ, ӧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ ѧ (ԧ) "էڧӧ֧ާ ާѧݧڧܧ ٧ ߧѧާѧ٧ӧѧ ܧѧާ֧ߧߧ ާ֧է, ߧ ݧѧէߧ ܧݧѧէ ܧݧ֧, ҧ ҧ ݧѧէܧ֧ڧ ܧ֧ܧ է֧اѧ է֧ߧ֧اܧ... اڧߧ, էڧԧڧ էӧѧէѧ ݧ֧, ֧٧اѧ֧ ֧էߧڧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧٧է ҧӧѧ֧, ԧէ ݧܧ ֧էӧڧէڧ ӧԧէ". ѧݧߧڧ ֧֧ӧڧ, ڧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ֧ާ֧ݧ ҧѧާ ڧѧ, ߧէڧ, ѧߧ, ڧ ާڧӧѧݧ ܧ ܧݧ ֧էߧ֧ӧ֧ܧӧԧ ԧէ, ߧڧܧѧݧߧ ӧڧ ڧߧ֧٧ էڧا֧ߧڧ ѧѧէ ܧ. ֧ҧߧ ҧ֧٧ѧߧ ԧӧ ֧ ֧ߧ ԧէڧۧܧԧ ֧ާ֧ݧ - ѧާѧܧѧߧէ, ֧ߧէاڧܧ֧ߧ, ѧۧܧ֧ߧէ, ѧ ѧѧ - ֧է֧ݧڧݧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ڧ֧ߧѧڧ ߧ ڧݧߧާ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧާ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧާ.
VI ӧ֧ܧ ԧ ӧէڧ էѧӧ ѧݧڧ, ٧էߧ֧ - ܧܧڧ ܧѧԧѧߧѧ, 630 ԧէ ڧ٧ߧѧ֧ ӧ֧ӧ֧ߧӧ ڧѧۧܧ էڧߧѧڧ ѧ. ֧ڧ ѧӧ֧ ܧѧԧѧߧѧ ԧէڧۧ ݧڧݧ ӧ٧ާاߧ ԧӧѧ ֧ݧܧ, ݧ֧ߧߧ ܧѧާ ӧڧէ էѧߧ ڧѧ. 70- ԧէ VI ӧ֧ܧ ֧ߧڧ ܧܧڧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ԧէڧۧܧڧ ܧ֧ ѧߧڧѧ ӧ֧է֧ ֧֧ԧӧ ԧѧѧߧڧ ԧӧݧ ߧѧѧݧ ѧڧߧѧ ѧߧ, ٧ѧ֧ ӧڧ٧ѧߧڧۧܧڧ ڧާ֧ѧ. ֧էߧڧ ӧ֧ܧ ԧէڧۧܧڧ ٧ ѧ ߧӧߧ ٧ܧ ҧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ֧ݧڧܧ ֧ݧܧӧ . էէڧ, ڧڧѧߧ, ާѧߧڧ֧ ֧֧ӧէڧݧ ӧ ֧ݧڧԧڧ٧ߧ ֧ܧ ߧ ԧէڧۧܧڧ ٧, ڧݧ٧ ӧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ѧէڧڧ: ڧߧէڧۧܧڧ ѧݧѧӧڧ - ҧէէڧ, ѧѧާ֧ۧܧڧ ڧ - ާѧߧڧ֧֧, ֧ӧߧѧѧݧߧ ҧ֧ ڧާ ڧڧѧ-ڧڧ֧ۧ, ӧ֧ڧӧ֧էߧ ѧݧѧӧڧ ߧ֧ڧѧ ܧӧڧ. էߧѧܧ ߧ ߧ ާԧݧ ӧ֧ߧڧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ԧէڧۧܧ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ߧ ߧӧ ѧѧާ֧ۧܧԧ ڧ, ٧էߧ֧ ֧֧ߧ ۧԧѧާ. ҧѧ٧ѧާ ڧާ֧ߧߧ ާاߧ ٧ߧѧܧާڧ "ѧ ڧާѧ" ڧ ܧݧߧڧ ߧѧߧ էܧާ֧ߧѧ, ߧѧۧէ֧ߧߧ ߧ ԧ էݧڧߧ ѧѧѧߧ. ߧѧѧݧ VIII ӧ֧ܧ ԧ ֧ڧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ާݧާѧߧܧڧ ӧۧ ֧ۧҧ ڧҧ ݧڧާ էڧߧ֧ ѧݧڧѧ, ѧӧѧ ާߧ ԧӧ-֧ާ֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧ ߧ ԧ֧ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ѧߧӧ ݧѧާ.

VII ӧ֧ܧ ݧ ا֧֧ߧߧ ާ֧اݧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ӧۧ ߧ֧ҧݧ ԧ ֧էڧߧ ѧ ֧ߧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧԧ ҧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧѧҧܧڧ ݧ֧ާ֧. ܧ ֧էڧߧ ҧ ݧѧڧӧѧ ӧاէ ܧ֧ӧ ݧ֧ާ֧, ߧѧѧӧݧڧ ӧ ڧݧ ڧ ֧էߧڧ ѧ٧ڧ ԧէ. է֧اڧӧѧ էߧ ҧ֧է ٧ էԧ, ѧѧҧ ҧ ٧ѧӧѧӧѧ ڧڧ, ѧݧ֧ڧߧ, ѧ, 651 ԧէ ߧ ا ҧݧ ֧ӧ ҧ֧ ҧ ӧ٧ݧ ֧ԧ. ҧ֧է ѧѧҧ ҧߧ ߧ ݧܧ ڧ ڧݧ, ܧݧܧ ݧѧҧ ѧ٧էҧݧ֧ߧߧ ٧ѧӧѧ֧ߧߧ ѧ. ֧ӧ, -ӧڧէڧާާ, ֧֧֧ ާէѧ ҧѧۧէݧݧ ڧҧ ڧ, ݧѧߧߧ է ѧݧڧ ѧӧڧ֧ 674 ԧէ. ѧէڧ ӧ٧ ѧۧܧ֧ߧ, է֧اѧ ҧ֧է ߧѧ ҧѧܧ ѧڧ֧, ܧէ ӧӧ֧ ҧԧѧ էҧ - اڧ, է֧اէ, ٧ݧ, ֧֧ҧ ާߧا֧ӧ ݧ֧ߧߧ. ާ ҧѧѧ ֧ڧݧ ڧۧ ӧݧѧէ֧֧ݧ ԧէ, ֧ ֧֧, ߧ, ѧܧѧ٧ ѧѧ, ѧѧҧܧ ӧۧܧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ݧ ߧ ԧէڧ֧ۧ ݧ ѧѧ֧ ӧ֧ѧݧ֧ߧڧ, ߧ ݧ ݧ ҧڧӧ. ݧӧѧ ѧѧҧܧԧ ڧڧܧ ֧ݧѧ٧, ҧѧܧڧ ݧ֧ߧߧڧܧ ҧݧ ҧѧ֧ߧ ѧҧ. ӧҧէݧҧڧӧ ҧѧ ߧ ާԧݧ ާڧڧ ӧ֧ ѧ. ߧ ӧݧ ӧ էӧ֧ ѧڧէ ڧҧ ާѧߧ ҧڧݧ ֧ԧ.
704 ԧէ ߧѧާ֧ߧڧܧ ѧѧߧ ߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ ֧ۧҧ ڧҧ ݧڧ, ѧӧڧӧڧ ӧ֧ ٧ѧէѧ֧ ߧ ٧ѧӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ, ֧ ѧ֧ - ҧݧѧ֧ ݧ֧اѧڧ ߧ ѧӧ ߧ ާէѧ. 705-706 ԧէѧ ܧ֧ ѧݧ, ѧۧܧ֧ߧ, ߧ ӧ֧ѧ֧ ߧ ڧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ԧէڧ֧ۧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ѧԧէڧ ڧ٧ѧ ѧѧߧ, ܧ ٧ѧѧӧݧ֧ ֧ԧ ѧ. 709 ԧէ ֧ۧҧ էҧڧӧѧ֧ ֧֧ݧާ. ѧ٧ԧާݧ֧ ܧѧ٧ߧ֧ ѧѧ, ҧ֧ ҧݧԧ է ٧ѧӧѧ֧ߧ ѧ. ܧ ֧ۧҧ ٧ѧӧѧӧѧ֧ ާ֧, ֧֧ ֧. ѧ٧ѧݧ ҧ, ӧ ԧӧ էݧ ߧѧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧѧҧ ߧ ֧է ԧէ ѧާѧܧѧߧ, էߧѧܧ է֧ݧ ֧٧ާ ӧݧ֧ܧݧ ֧ۧҧ ߧ էӧ ԧէ. 711 ԧէ ֧ۧҧ ާԧѧ֧ ֧٧ާѧ ӧѧߧӧڧ ߧ ֧ݧ ֧٧ ѧէѧ֧ էڧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧݧڧѧ. 712 ԧէ ֧ۧҧ ֧էڧߧڧާѧ֧ ߧ ѧާѧܧѧߧ. ѧާѧܧѧߧէܧڧ ڧڧ ֧ ܧѧ٧ѧ ߧ ڧӧݧ֧ߧڧ. ѧҧܧ ӧۧܧ ڧݧ٧ӧѧݧ ѧէߧ ާ֧ѧ֧ݧߧ ֧ߧҧڧߧ էڧ. ݧ ߧԧ ҧ ֧ۧҧ ӧ٧ ԧ. ѧާѧܧѧߧ ҧ ҧݧا֧ ا֧ݧ էѧߧ. ֧ۧҧ էݧاڧ ӧ է - ӧ٧ էا֧ߧ, ֧ԧѧߧ, ӧ֧ӧѧ ѧ, ߧ ҧ ҧڧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ѧ - ܧ ѧԧѧէ-էߧ. 715 ԧէ, ݧڧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ڧ ާ֧ ѧݧڧ ѧݧڧէ, ֧ۧҧ էߧ ާ֧, ߧ ҧ ҧڧ ֧ԧѧߧ էߧڧ ڧ ӧڧ ا ڧҧݧڧا֧ߧߧ.

ߧѧѧݧ 20- ԧէ 9 ӧ֧ܧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ӧ֧ ֧էѧߧߧ ѧݧڧѧ ӧէ֧ݧڧݧڧ ѧ ڧҧ ѧާѧ ֧ԧ ߧӧ, ܧ 806-810 . ڧߧݧ ߧ֧ԧڧߧ ާ֧ ڧ ѧ ڧҧ-֧ۧ, ӧѧӧ֧ԧ ڧ ѧݧڧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ. ֧է ѧާѧ ڧէڧ ڧ էڧܧѧߧܧԧ է ֧ԧѧߧ (֧ ѧܧا ӧ֧ڧ, ҧ ӧէ֧ ڧ ҧݧѧ֧ ѧݧ ڧݧ ֧ާ֧٧). ߧѧԧѧէ ٧ ֧էѧߧߧ ݧاҧ, ѧا֧ߧڧ ѧݧڧ ѧ-ѧާߧ ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ѧѧߧ ѧѧ ڧҧ ҧҧѧ (819-821 ԧ.) ߧѧ٧ߧѧѧ֧ ߧӧ֧ ѧէ ڧҧ ѧާѧߧ ߧѧާ֧ߧڧܧѧާ ӧѧاߧ֧ۧڧ ҧݧѧ֧ ԧէ. ݧѧ֧ ѧާѧܧѧߧ, ާѧ - ֧ԧѧߧ, - ѧ ѧߧ, ݧ - ֧ѧ. ݧѧӧ ֧ާ ڧѧݧ , ݧ ֧ԧ ާ֧ - ާѧ ڧҧ ѧ. ާѧէ ѧާѧߧڧէ էҧڧӧѧ ѧӧߧާڧ ѧݧڧѧ ѧڧڧէ.
֧ާ ާѧէ ڧҧ ѧէ էڧߧ֧ ֧ҧ ӧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ ѧާѧߧڧէ, ҧѧ٧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ҧڧߧ ԧէѧӧ. ݧڧڧܧ ާѧէ ҧݧ էݧا֧ߧ ߧ ѧ, ڧէ֧ӧڧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ. ڧѧ ӧݧڧߧڧ֧ ѧާѧߧڧէ, ѧݧڧ ѧէڧ ֧֧էѧ֧ 875 ԧէ ѧ ڧҧ ާѧէ (875-892 ԧ.) ѧӧ ߧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ݧڧ֧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ. 892 ԧէ ާڧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ѧߧӧڧ ҧѧ ѧ ާѧڧ (892-907 ԧ.), 874 ԧէ ѧӧڧӧڧ ѧ. 900 ԧէ ާѧڧ ѧާѧߧ ҧڧӧ ѧݧ ߧѧߧ֧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ѧѧڧէ ާ ڧҧ ֧ۧ. ѧѧ, ٧էߧ֧ ڧѧ, ӧܧݧ֧ߧ ѧ ԧէѧӧ ѧާѧߧڧէ. ѧѧ է 999 ԧէ ѧӧݧݧ ڧ ڧѧ ѧާѧߧڧէܧڧ ߧѧާ֧ߧڧܧ. ާѧڧݧ ߧѧݧ֧էӧѧ ֧ԧ ާѧ ڧҧ ާѧڧ (907-914). ֧ڧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧާѧߧڧէ ѧ II (914-943) 30-40- ԧէ 10 . ԧէѧӧ ݧѧ֧ ѧѧߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ߧڧ ܧѧާѧ, ܧާ ڧݧ ҧ ֧ԧ ߧ - I (943-954).
ѧާѧߧڧէѧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ߧѧڧߧѧ֧ ѧӧ֧ ֧ާ֧֧, ڧ֧ݧӧ, ܧݧ. ԧާߧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ڧҧ֧ѧ֧ ܧѧѧӧѧߧߧѧ ԧӧݧ. اڧӧݧ֧ ֧ݧڧܧڧ ֧ݧܧӧ , ӧݧ ֧ԧ ߧӧ ӧ֧ӧݧ֧ߧڧ. ѧߧӧ ѧڧӧѧ ԧէ. ٧ߧڧܧѧ֧ ާߧԧ ߧӧ ֧ߧ ܧѧ֧ӧ, ԧߧѧߧԧ է֧ݧ, ާ֧էߧԧ, ݧߧԧ էԧڧ ֧ާ֧֧. ߧ ԧէ ӧ٧ӧէ ܧѧѧӧѧ-ѧѧ, ާ֧֧, ާ֧է֧. ֧ڧ اڧݧ ӧڧݧ ӧ֧ݧڧܧڧ ֧ߧ-ߧڧܧݧ֧էڧ ѧ-֧٧ާ, ѧ-ѧԧߧ, ҧ ѧ ѧҧ, ҧ ڧߧ, ҧ ѧۧѧ ֧ߧ, ѧѧ էԧڧ. 945 ԧէ ߧѧڧߧѧ ߧߧ ާ ѧѧߧ. ѧާѧߧڧէѧ ҧ-ѧ-֧ݧڧܧ ڧҧ (954-961) ֧ԧ ҧѧ ѧߧ (961-976), ߧ ѧߧ - II (976-997), ߧ II - ҧ-ѧ-֧ݧڧܧ II (997-999) ԧէѧӧ ֧֧ߧߧ ݧѧҧ֧ӧѧ֧. 999 ԧէ ѧާѧߧڧէ ѧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ܧܧڧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ ܧѧѧѧߧڧէѧ. էѧӧ ѧާѧߧڧէ ֧ܧѧѧ֧ ӧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ. ݧ֧էߧڧ ѧާѧߧڧէܧڧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ ѧ-ߧѧڧ - ҧѧ ҧ-ѧ-֧ݧڧܧ II ҧ ҧڧ 1005 ԧէ.

ܧߧ 10 ӧ֧ܧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ֧ާڧ֧ ߧԧ ܧ֧ѧߧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧݧ ԧէѧӧ ܧѧѧѧߧڧէ (ܧѧ- ߧѧ, ܧѧѧѧ - ѧӧڧ֧ݧ ߧѧէ) ӧ ԧݧѧӧ "ѧէڧѧ ԧާ" ڧݧ "ڧݧ֧ܧѧߧ". ֧ԧ ѧӧ ҧ֧էڧߧڧݧڧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ܧܧڧ ߧѧէߧ - ܧѧݧܧ, ڧԧڧݧ, ѧԧ, ԧާ էԧڧ, ܧ 960 ԧէ ا ڧߧݧ ڧݧѧ. 992 ԧէ ӧۧܧ ܧѧѧѧߧڧէ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ڧݧ֧ܧѧߧ ԧ ӧԧݧڧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ. ֧ ܧѧѧѧߧڧէ ҧӧӧѧݧ ѧۧߧ ٧ѧܧݧ֧ߧߧ ԧ-ѧߧ ѧާѧߧڧէܧڧ ߧѧާ֧ߧڧܧ ѧѧߧ ҧѧݧ ڧާէا ڧ٧ާ֧ߧ ӧ֧ߧߧߧѧѧݧߧڧܧ ڧܧ. ֧٧ݧѧ ܧѧѧѧߧڧէ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ҧ֧ ҧ ٧ѧӧѧڧݧ ѧ, ާڧ II ҧ֧اѧ ѧէا. էߧѧܧ ԧ-ѧ ٧ѧҧݧ֧, ѧӧڧݧ ߧ էڧߧ ѧԧѧ էԧ ާ֧. ѧѧѧߧڧէ ݧ ڧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ҧԧѧ էҧ֧. ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ܧѧѧѧߧڧէ ѧ ڧݧ֧ܧѧ ѧ, ܧ ӧ٧ҧߧӧڧ ߧѧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ѧ. 995-996 ԧէѧ II ާ ѧҧ-֧ԧڧߧ ҧڧӧѧ֧ ߧѧѧէ֧ߧڧ ܧѧѧѧߧڧէ.
999 ԧէ ѧ ҧݧ ӧߧӧ ٧ѧӧѧ֧ߧ ܧѧѧѧߧڧէѧާ, ާڧ ҧ-ѧ-֧ݧڧ II ӧ ѧܧѧ ֧ާ ѧݧ ߧڧ ݧ֧. ܧߧѧ֧ݧߧ ֧ڧݧ ӧ ӧݧѧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ݧ٧ ܧѧѧѧߧڧէ. ѧѧѧߧڧէܧ ԧէѧӧ ӧѧڧݧ ٧֧ާݧ ѧԧѧ է ާէѧ ӧܧݧѧݧ ֧ҧ ѧ ߧԧ ܧ֧ѧߧ, ֧ާڧ֧, ѧ, ֧ԧѧߧ ٧֧ާݧ է֧ӧߧ֧ԧ ԧէ. ݧ է 1005 ԧէ ݧ֧էߧڧ ѧާѧߧڧ ѧ-ߧѧڧ ֧ߧ ѧاѧݧ ܧѧѧѧߧڧէѧާ, ߧ ֧ӧէڧ ڧݧ ݧ֧էߧڧ ҧ֧֧ڧݧ ҧ֧է. ҧݧѧԧݧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧѧԧէѧէܧԧ ѧݧڧ ڧݧ֧ܧѧ ѧ ڧҧ ݧ ӧ֧էڧ ӧ ӧݧѧ ߧѧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ. ѧӧ֧ӧѧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ, ܧѧѧѧߧڧէ ߧڧاڧݧ ݧӧڧ է֧ܧѧ, ڧ ٧֧ާݧ ӧէ ҧݧ ֧֧էѧߧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ԧէѧӧ ӧڧէ "ڧܧ" ѧ٧էѧӧѧݧڧ ӧ֧ߧѧѧݧߧڧܧѧ էӧ֧ߧӧ. ݧ ާ֧ ڧݧ֧ܧѧߧ ѧ 1012 ԧէ ֧ާ ߧѧݧ֧էӧѧ ֧ԧ ҧѧ ݧ-֧ԧڧ. ѧѧѧߧڧէ ӧ֧ݧ ߧߧ ӧۧߧ ֧էߧڧ ԧէѧӧ ԧѧ٧ߧ֧ӧڧէ ٧ ٧֧ާݧ էݧڧߧ ާէѧ, ܧߧ 11 ӧ֧ܧ ѧݧ ӧѧѧݧߧ ٧ѧӧڧڧާ ӧ٧ӧڧӧ֧ԧ ԧէѧӧ ֧ݧէاܧڧէ. ݧڧ ڧݧ֧ܧѧߧ ֧ӧߧѧѧݧߧ ߧѧէڧݧѧ ٧ԧ֧ߧ, ҧݧ ֧֧ߧ֧֧ߧ ѧާѧܧѧߧ. ѧ ѧܧا էڧߧݧѧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ. ѧѧѧߧڧէܧڧ ѧߧ ާߧԧ ڧݧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ, ѧ, ڧߧܧ֧ߧ, ӧ٧ӧէڧݧ էӧ, ާ֧֧ ާ֧է֧, էէ֧اڧӧѧݧ ܧ֧ݧݧ ѧӧڧ֧ ާݧާѧߧܧԧ էӧ֧ߧӧ.

11 ֧ӧ ݧӧڧߧ 12 ӧ֧ܧ ֧٧ ӧէڧ ѧ ԧէѧӧ ֧ݧէاܧڧէ (ҧѧ٧ӧѧӧ֧ԧ 11 ӧ֧ܧ ߧ ѧ٧ӧѧݧڧߧѧ ԧէѧӧ ѧ٧ߧ֧ӧڧէ). ٧ӧ֧ߧڧ ֧٧ާ 11 ӧ֧ܧ ֧ߧ ӧ٧ѧߧ ݧڧڧܧ ֧٧ާѧ ڧ ܧܧ էڧߧѧڧ, ӧէڧӧ֧ ߧ-֧ԧڧߧ - ݧ ѧߧӧߧڧܧ ֧ݧէاܧڧէܧԧ ާڧ. ߧ֧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ, է֧ݧѧ ҧݧ֧ ܧѧ֧ էӧ ֧ݧڧ-ѧ (1072-1092 ԧ.), ԧէ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ӧ֧էާӧ ݧѧߧܧڧ "ާӧѧݧߧڧܧ". ܧާ֧֧ߧڧ ԧ ӧ֧էާӧ ӧէڧݧ ԧէ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧٧ާ. ӧߧ ֧ߧէ֧ߧڧ ֧ӧѧ֧ߧڧ ֧٧ާ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާ ԧէѧӧ ӧڧ ӧߧ ߧ-֧ԧڧߧ - , ا ߧڧӧڧ ӧߧӧ ӧ٧اէ֧ߧߧ ڧ ֧٧ާѧ. ֧٧ާѧ (1127-1156 ԧ.) ֧ߧ ӧ֧ ҧҧ ֧ݧէاܧڧէܧڧ ݧѧߧ ѧߧէاѧ. ڧ էڧݧާѧ ֧ڧ֧ݧߧ ӧ֧ߧѧѧݧߧڧ, ߧѧѧ ӧ֧ ѧާ֧ݧߧ ӧߧ֧ߧ ݧڧڧܧ. ѧ, ҧ֧ ѧ٧֧֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ԧ ٧֧֧ߧ ѧߧէاѧ, ߧѧѧ ӧۧߧ ܧڧѧܧѧާ ܧާ֧ߧѧާ.
ߧѧѧݧ 12 ӧ֧ܧ ֧էߧ ٧ڧ ӧܧ ڧݧ ߧӧ ٧ѧӧ֧ӧѧ֧ݧ - ܧѧ-ܧڧѧ. ֧ݧէاܧڧէܧڧ ݧѧ ѧߧէاѧ ڧ֧ ߧ ާ ѧާѧܧѧߧէܧާ ܧѧѧѧߧڧէܧާ ѧߧ ѧާէ, ܧ ҧ ֧ԧ ҧݧڧاѧۧڧ էӧ֧ߧߧڧܧ. ڧӧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ ܧѧ-ܧڧѧާ ٧ѧܧߧڧݧѧ ݧߧ ѧا֧ߧڧ֧ ѧߧէاѧ. ֧٧ާѧ ا ӧݧ٧ӧѧݧ ѧا֧ߧڧ֧ ѧߧէاѧ ٧ڧާ 1141 ԧէ ٧ѧӧѧڧ ѧ٧ԧѧҧڧ ֧, 1142 ԧէ ا ڧҧݧڧ٧ڧݧ ڧѧ. 1156 ԧէ ާڧѧ֧ , 1157 ԧէ ާڧѧ֧ ֧ԧ ݧ-ݧѧ (1156-1172 ԧ.) էݧاڧ ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ֧٧ާڧۧܧԧ ԧէѧӧ. ڧ֧էڧߧ֧ ڧڧѧ ܧ֧ߧާ. ԧ ֧ܧ֧ (1172-1200 ԧ) 1187 ԧէ ٧ѧӧѧӧѧ֧ ڧѧ, 1192 - ֧, 1194 . - ߧѧߧڧ ֧ڧ֧ݧߧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ݧѧߧ ٧ѧѧէߧ ֧ݧէاܧڧէ, ֧٧ݧѧ ֧ԧ ӧ ӧߧѧ ݧ ѧߧ ֧֧էڧ ֧ԧ ܧ.
1195 . ֧ܧ֧ ߧѧߧڧ ӧۧܧѧ ѧҧҧѧڧէܧԧ ѧݧڧ ѧا֧ߧڧ, ֧٧ާڧۧܧڧ ӧۧܧ ӧէ ѧ ܧѧ ݧߧӧݧѧߧ ٧֧ӧ. ֧٧ާѧ ֧ܧ֧ ߧاߧ ڧ٧ߧѧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ѧݧѧߧݧڧӧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ֧٧ާ, ާ֧ӧڧ էӧڧ ֧ڧڧ ٧էѧ ާߧ ԧէѧӧ. ݧѧҧ ާ֧ ֧ԧ ݧڧڧܧ ҧݧ ܧӧڧ֧ݧӧ, ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ާ ڧ ܧڧѧܧܧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ѧڧܧѧڧ, ܧѧ, ݧ٧ ڧާѧڧާ ا֧ߧ ֧ܧ֧, ֧ާڧݧѧ ާѧܧڧާѧݧߧ ӧݧڧ ߧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ է֧ݧ. ӧ֧ӧݧߧ ӧާ֧ѧ֧ݧӧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ է֧ݧ ܧܧڧ "ԧ֧ߧ֧ѧݧ" ӧݧ֧էӧڧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ҧӧӧѧݧ ѧէ֧ߧڧ ֧٧ާܧԧ ԧէѧӧ ߧ ֧ܧ֧, ֧٧ާѧ ѧާާ֧է.

-

1215 ԧէ ڧߧԧڧ-ѧ, ٧ѧܧ֧ڧ էڧԧߧ ֧ӧ֧ߧ ڧѧ ֧, ҧѧѧ֧ ӧ ڧߧ֧֧ ߧ ٧ѧѧ. 1219 ԧէ էѧ֧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ا֧ҧ-ߧۧߧ ӧѧ ߧ ܧ֧ѧ ֧ާڧ֧. ѧ٧ԧާڧ ԧէѧӧ ݧܧ, ѧާڧ ڧߧԧڧ-ѧߧ ӧԧѧ֧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ. ֧٧ާѧ ѧާާ֧ էѧ֧ ڧܧѧ ܧ֧ݧ ԧէ. ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ ҧ ҧѧ ҧݧ ѧѧէ, ߧ է֧ߧԧ ҧݧ ѧѧ֧ߧ, ֧ߧ ѧ ߧ ҧݧ ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧ. 1219 ԧէ ڧߧԧڧ-ѧ էӧڧߧݧ ѧ - ҧݧ ڧݧߧ ܧ֧. ѧ٧է֧ݧڧ ӧ ڧݧ, ѧӧڧ էߧ ѧ էݧ ѧէ ѧ, էԧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ߧ ا ߧѧѧӧڧ էݧ ٧ѧӧѧ ԧߧѧܧ, ٧ԧ֧ߧ, ا֧ߧէ, ٧ѧ֧ ԧ֧ߧ. 5 ֧ݧӧ֧ ҧ ݧѧ ӧӧ֧ էѧ ߧ ԧէ ֧ߧѧܧ֧ էا֧ߧ. ѧ ڧߧԧڧ-ѧ ԧݧѧӧߧާ ڧݧѧާ ܧѧѧ֧ۧ էԧ ֧֧ ҧ֧٧ӧէߧ ֧ ߧѧѧӧڧݧ ѧ. ֧ӧѧݧ 1220 ԧէ ѧ ҧݧ ӧ٧. ҧ էѧ ڧߧԧڧ-ѧߧ ߧ ѧ٧ԧѧҧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧڧ ӧڧߧѧ. ֧ ѧߧ էҧ ѧ ҧ ѧѧߧڧݧѧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ. ѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ҧӧѧݧ ѧ ѧߧڧܧ. ֧٧ާѧ ѧާާ֧ ݧڧӧ ҧ֧٧է֧ۧӧӧѧ ԧ ҧ ҧ֧اѧ.
ѧ ާߧԧݧ ߧѧѧӧڧݧڧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ. ѧѧݧߧڧܧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէܧԧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ߧ ҧ ԧѧ-ѧ, ܧ էѧ ԧ, ѧڧӧѧ ֧֧ۧ ߧ ݧاҧ ڧߧԧڧ-ѧߧ. ߧԧݧ ӧݧ ԧ ڧݧ ֧٧ߧ. اڧӧ ѧݧѧ ݧڧ ֧ӧ֧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ. ѧ֧ݧ 1220 ԧէ, ާߧԧݧ ӧ٧ݧ ا֧ߧ. ӧ֧ӧ էѧ ߧ ӧ٧ݧ ֧ߧѧܧ֧. ѧӧڧ֧ݧ էا֧ߧ ڧާ-֧ݧڧ ܧѧ٧ѧ ާا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ާߧԧݧѧ. ߧ֧ҧݧڧ է ֧ާ էѧݧ ҧާ էۧ է ԧ֧ߧ. ߧѧݧ֧ߧڧ ݧ֧ 1220 ԧէ ӧߧѧ ֧ߧѧݧߧѧ ѧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ҧݧ ٧ѧӧѧ֧ߧ ާߧԧݧѧާ. ֧٧ާѧ ҧ֧اѧ. ާ֧ ߧ ӧ اߧԧ ҧ֧֧ԧ ѧڧۧܧԧ ާ. ԧ֧ߧ ڧާ-֧ݧڧ ߧ ܧܧ ӧ֧ާ ӧ٧ԧݧѧӧڧ ӧۧܧ ݧ֧ߧڧ. ֧ߧ ѧاѧݧ ا. ֧ߧ 1220 ԧէ ڧߧԧڧ-ѧ ާ ӧ٧ ֧ާ֧. ڧާ 1221 ԧէ ߧѧѧݧѧ ѧէ ԧ֧ߧ. ڧ֧ݧ ܧѧ٧ѧݧ ԧ֧ڧ֧ܧ ڧӧݧ֧ߧڧ. է ѧէ֧ߧڧ ԧ֧ߧ ҧݧ ӧ٧ ѧݧ ֧. ا ݧ֧ 1221 ԧէ ӧ ֧ڧڧ ֧ߧѧݧߧ ٧ڧ ڧߧѧէݧ֧اѧݧ ާߧԧݧѧ. ݧ ާ֧ ڧߧԧڧ-ѧߧ է֧ݧ֧ا ާߧԧݧܧ ڧާ֧ڧ ާ֧اէ ڧߧԧڧ٧ڧէѧާ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ҧ ڧ٧ߧѧ է֧ݧ (ݧ) ߧ ڧߧԧڧ-ѧߧ - ѧԧѧѧ. ҧ ߧѧݧԧ ݧ٧ ѧԧѧѧۧܧԧ էާ ҧ էӧ֧֧ ާ֧ߧާ ܧڧܧ ѧާէ ݧѧӧѧ.

֧֧էڧߧ 14 ӧ֧ܧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ӧէ֧ݧڧݧ ӧ֧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ѧܧڧӧߧ ҧѧݧѧܧԧ ҧ֧ܧ ֧ާ ѧѧԧѧ. ާ֧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէܧڧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ާڧ ֧ۧߧ - ӧߧܧ ӧݧڧ֧ݧߧԧ ܧܧԧ ާڧ ѧ٧ѧԧѧߧ, ֧ާ ߧѧѧ ҧҧ ٧ ҧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ӧҧاէ֧ߧڧ ֧ԧ ާߧԧݧܧԧ ӧݧѧէ֧ӧ. ٧էߧ֧ ڧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ҧڧݧڧ. 1370 ԧէ ާڧ ֧ާ ѧ٧ҧڧ ӧۧܧ ֧ۧߧ ҧ ӧ٧ԧݧѧ֧ ާڧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ.
֧֧ߧڧ 1372-1388 ԧ. ާڧ ֧ާ ӧ֧ѧ֧ է ߧ ֧٧, էҧڧӧѧ ֧ԧ ݧߧԧ էڧߧ֧ߧڧ. ݧ ԧ ߧѧڧߧѧ֧ ӧ֧ߧߧ է ѧ, ѧ, ѧܧѧӧܧѧ٧, ڧڧ, ڧ. ֧٧ݧѧ ҧݧ ٧էѧߧ ҧڧߧ֧ۧѧ ڧާ֧ڧ. էߧѧܧ ާԧ֧ӧ ֧ާ ߧߧ ԧاѧݧ ݧѧ է ֧ݧѧ է, ܧ ӧէڧݧ ݧ ا.
1379 ԧէ ާڧ ֧ާ է֧ۧӧ֧ ӧاէ֧ߧڧ ѧާ ߧ ֧ ֧ݧ է. էߧѧܧ ѧާ ݧ ҧ֧է ߧѧ ѧާѧ֧ (1380) ٧ѧӧѧӧѧ֧ ӧ֧ӧߧ ӧݧѧ ݧ է ߧѧڧߧѧ֧ ܧѧߧڧ ߧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ ֧ާ. ӧ֧ ߧ ާڧ ֧ާ ߧѧߧڧ ѧާ ܧߧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ҧڧӧѧ 1391 ԧէ ߧէ٧ 1395 ԧէ էݧڧߧ ֧ܧ ֧֧ ߧ ֧ӧ֧ߧ ѧӧܧѧ٧. ڧݧ ѧާ ҧݧ ߧѧݧܧ ݧѧҧݧ֧ߧ, ֧ާ ܧݧѧ ӧҧէߧѧ էԧ ӧݧا, ݧڧ ݧ է - ѧѧ ֧ܧ. ҧ ٧ѧӧѧ֧, ѧ٧ԧѧҧݧ֧ اا֧.
1398-1399 ԧէѧ ݧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ڧߧէڧۧܧڧ , ڧ ܧԧ ҧݧ ӧӧ֧٧֧ߧ ԧާߧѧ էҧ. 1400 ԧէ ާڧ ֧ާ ӧڧ ҧҧ ֧ܧڧ ݧѧߧ ѧ٧֧է 1 ֧ԧڧ֧ܧڧ ݧѧߧ ѧѧէا֧. 1402 ԧէ ߧܧѧ ާѧߧܧڧ ݧѧ ҧ ߧѧԧݧӧ ѧ٧ҧڧ, ߧ 50 ݧ֧ ڧݧ ٧ѧӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ܧѧާ-ާѧߧѧާ ߧѧߧڧߧݧ. ܧߧ 1404 ԧէ ֧ާ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ 200-ߧԧ ӧۧܧ ӧڧ ߧ ڧѧ. էߧѧܧ ާ֧ ֧ާ 18 ֧ӧѧݧ 1405 ԧէ ѧ ֧ӧѧݧ .
֧ڧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ާڧ ֧ާ ҧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ֧ ڧߧ֧ߧڧӧߧԧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ܧߧާڧܧ, ԧӧݧ ܧݧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ, ѧӧ֧ԧ ѧ ҧڧߧ ڧާ֧ڧ. 14-15 ӧ֧ܧ - ӧ֧ާ ֧ާڧէܧԧ "֧ߧ֧ѧߧ" - ѧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ ڧڧ ֧ߧѧݧߧ ٧ڧ "٧ݧ ӧ֧ܧ". ӧ֧ էѧڧ ާڧ ӧ֧ݧڧѧۧڧ ֧ߧ, ԧ֧ߧڧѧݧߧ էاߧڧܧ. ѧѧߧ "ߧڧԧ ҧѧܧԧ ԧ" ѧܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ݧܧӧէӧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ ݧѧҧާѧاߧ ֧ݧܧӧ ܧѧߧ֧. ֧ާ ڧѧ, ާڧ "ҧݧѧԧ֧ ҧݧѧԧէѧ ܧѧ" ѧڧ ҧݧڧ ֧էӧ ߧ ڧ֧ݧӧ ߧӧ է, ԧӧ ا֧ߧڧ. ާ֧ߧߧ ֧ާ ѧڧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ӧ٧ ѧߧѧާ ݧڧاߧ֧ԧ ֧էߧ֧ԧ ܧ ѧѧէ, էѧݧ֧ܧڧާ ѧߧѧާ ӧ: ѧߧڧ֧, ѧߧڧ֧, ߧԧݧڧ֧.

(1405-1450)

ݧ ާ֧ ާڧ ֧ާ ֧֧ߧڧ ݧ֧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ݧ ާ֧اէҧߧѧ էڧߧѧڧ֧ܧѧ ӧۧߧ. 1409 ԧէ ֧ާ ѧ (1376-1447) ҧ֧اէѧ֧ ѧݧڧ-ݧѧߧ, ߧ ӧ֧ԧ ҧѧ ڧѧߧѧ, ߧާڧߧѧݧߧ ѧߧӧڧ ԧݧѧӧ ֧էڧߧ ֧ާӧ է֧اѧӧ. էߧѧܧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ߧ ا ݧ ڧ էӧ ԧէѧ. ѧ ѧӧڧ ѧѧߧ - ֧ߧ ֧ѧ, ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ, ݧڧ֧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ, ѧ ѧӧڧ ֧ԧ ѧ - ڧ٧ ݧԧҧ֧ (1394-1449). ҧ ԧէѧӧ ֧էѧӧݧݧ ҧ ҧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ ާ֧ݧܧڧ ֧էѧݧߧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ, ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ֧ާڧէѧާ, ާߧԧڧ ڧ ܧ ֧֧ߧէӧѧݧ ߧ ҧݧ ӧݧѧ. ߧ ѧ - ݧѧ-ѧާާ֧, ߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ߧߧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ѧߧ, ѧ ӧݧ ѧܧ ѧާ֧ݧߧ, ѧ ݧڧߧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ҧݧԧ ӧۧܧ ڧݧ ӧѧߧѧӧݧڧӧѧ է.
ݧԧҧ֧ ӧէڧ ѧާ֧ݧߧ ӧߧ֧ߧ ݧڧڧܧ. ٧ܧ ݧ֧էڧ ٧ ҧڧާ ߧ ߧڧاߧ֧ էѧ, ܧէ ܧ֧ӧ ٧ҧ֧ܧ ѧ-ڧѧܧ ӧ֧ѧݧ ߧѧҧ֧ԧ ߧ ֧٧. 1419 ԧէ էէ֧اڧӧѧ֧ ѧѧܧ ާԧѧ֧ ֧ާ ѧ ѧߧ ݧ ܧ֧ӧ ٧ҧ֧ܧ. ԧݧڧѧߧ ާ ݧԧҧ֧ܧ ݧ էݧԧڧ ѧ֧ ҧ֧է էҧڧݧ ѧ ڧާѧާާ֧, էߧѧܧ ӧܧ ݧԧҧ֧ܧ ڧݧ ӧ֧ӧѧ ӧڧާ ѧӧݧ֧ߧߧڧܧѧާ. 1425 ԧէ ݧԧҧ֧ ѧ٧ҧڧӧѧ֧ ާԧݧ. 1427 ԧէ, ݧ ԧ, ܧѧ ߧ֧ԧ ڧڧݧڧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ѧѧܧ, ӧ֧ѧ֧ ߧڧ٧ӧ էѧ, ܧ ٧ѧܧߧڧݧ ݧߧ ѧ٧ԧާ ݧԧҧ֧ܧ. ݧ ާ֧ ѧ 1447 ԧէ ݧԧҧ֧ ֧էڧߧڧާѧ֧ ܧ ٧ѧӧѧڧ ֧ѧ ѧѧ, էߧѧܧ ֧ާ ߧ էѧݧ. 1448 ԧէ ӧާ֧ ӧڧ ߧ ҧէݧݧѧڧ ӧߧӧ ֧էڧߧڧާѧ֧ ߧ ֧ѧ, ܧ ߧ ѧ ٧ѧӧѧӧѧ֧. ѧӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ѧѧߧ ާ֧ѧ ҧߧ ѧѧߧܧڧ ާڧ ӧا֧ߧڧ ܧ֧ӧ ٧ҧ֧ܧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ѧߧ ҧէݧѧۧ. 1449 ԧէ ҧէݧݧѧڧ ٧ѧ֧ӧѧ֧ ڧߧڧԧ ڧ , ٧ѧܧߧڧӧ ާ֧ ݧԧҧ֧ܧ ӧ֧اէ֧ߧڧ֧ ҧէݧݧѧڧ ߧ ֧ݧ. էߧѧܧ ߧ֧ߧѧӧڧէڧާ ٧ߧѧ, ߧѧէ, ҧ ҧڧ ا 8 ާѧ 1450 ԧէ ֧٧ݧѧ ٧ѧԧӧ. ݧѧ ҧݧ ֧֧էѧߧ ֧ާڧէ ҧէݧݧ, ܧ ѧݧ ӧ٧էڧ ݧڧڧܧ ݧԧҧ֧ܧ.

(1451-1507)

ڧӧӧ֧ ֧ާڧէ ҧէݧݧ, ܧԧ էէ֧اڧӧѧݧ ܧܧѧ ٧ߧѧ, ҧѧܧڧ ާڧ էէ֧اܧ ڧݧѧާܧԧ է֧ߧ ߧѧܧѧҧѧߧէڧۧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ էا ѧ (1404-1490) ӧէӧڧߧݧ ӧ֧ԧ ֧֧ߧէ֧ߧ ߧ ֧. ҧ ҧ-ѧڧ (1451-1468), ӧߧ ڧѧߧѧ, ߧ ާڧ ֧ާ. ҧ-ѧڧ ڧӧݧ֧ ߧ ӧ ߧ ѧߧ ܧ֧ӧ ٧ҧ֧ܧ ҧݧѧۧ. ֧ 1451 ԧէ ߧ֧էѧݧ֧ܧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ ڧ٧ݧ ֧ѧѧ ҧڧӧ. ֧ӧ ٧ҧ֧ܧ ӧݧ ҧ֧էڧ֧ݧާ, ӧۧܧ ҧէݧݧ ҧݧ ѧ֧ߧ, ѧ ҧէݧݧ ҧڧ. ҧ-ѧڧ ݧڧ ӧݧѧ ߧѧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ. ԧ ҧݧڧاѧۧڧ ӧ֧ߧڧܧ ѧ էا ѧ. ѧѧߧ ҧ-ѧڧէ ӧݧѧէ֧ ߧ էѧݧ, ѧ ܧѧ ԧ֧ѧܧڧ ֧ 1452 ԧէ է ѧާ ӧ֧ ާ֧ 1457 ԧէ ٧ѧߧڧާѧ ӧߧ ѧ ҧ-ѧ ѧҧ. ߧ֧ߧڧ ާ֧اէ էӧާ ѧӧڧ֧ݧާ ҧݧ ӧѧاէ֧ҧߧާ.
1457 ԧէ ҧ-ѧڧ ٧ѧӧѧڧ ԧ֧ѧܧڧ ֧, ߧ ӧ֧ާ ҧ֧էڧߧڧ էӧ ԧէѧӧ. էߧѧܧ ٧ ӧݧѧ ֧ѧ ҧݧ էԧ ֧ާڧ - ݧѧ ֧ۧ ѧۧܧѧ, ѧӧߧ ާѧ-֧ۧ, ߧ ާڧ ֧ާ. 1468 ԧէ ҧ-ѧڧ ѧӧڧݧ ߧ ٧ѧӧӧ֧ѧߧڧ ѧߧ ߧ ӧ֧ߧݧ. ݧѧ ֧ۧ (1469-1506) ӧݧ٧ӧѧݧ ڧѧڧ֧ ٧ѧӧѧڧ ӧݧѧ ֧ѧ. ߧӧ ҧ-ѧڧէ ܧѧ٧ѧݧڧ ҧҧ ٧ ӧݧѧ ݧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ. ӧ ݧӧڧߧ 15 ӧ֧ܧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ֧֧اڧӧѧ֧ ֧ڧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ѧ٧էҧݧ֧ߧߧ. 1469 1494 ԧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ ѧӧڧ ݧѧ ާ֧, ҧ-ѧڧէ (ѧܧڧ֧ܧѧ ӧݧѧ ٧է֧ ڧߧѧէݧ֧اѧݧ էا ѧ է֧ߧ ߧѧܧҧѧߧէڧۧ), ѧ - ݧѧ ݧ-ާڧ٧, ֧ԧѧߧ - ѧڧڧէէڧ ѧާާѧ ѧҧ.
ާ֧ߧߧ ѧҧ ܧѧ٧ѧ ߧѧڧҧݧ֧ ߧ ڧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧا֧ߧڧ ܧ֧ӧ ٧ҧ֧ܧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ֧ۧҧѧߧ-ѧߧ. 1497 ԧէ ѧߧէڧاѧߧܧڧ ӧۧܧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ѧҧ ٧ѧߧݧ ѧާѧܧѧߧ. ֧ߧ 1501 ԧէ ѧҧ ӧڧ ڧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ, ҧ ѧ٧ڧ ӧۧܧѧާ ֧ۧҧѧߧ-ѧߧ, էߧѧܧ ֧֧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ߧ ֧ܧ ѧ. ѧӧڧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ, ѧҧ ӧߧاէ֧ ҧ ۧ ѧҧ. ֧ۧҧѧߧ-ѧ ѧ٧ӧڧ ߧ֧ԧڧߧ ߧѧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ ѧѧ. ֧֧ߧڧ 1501-1506 . ٧ѧӧѧӧѧ֧ ѧާѧܧѧߧ, ѧܧ֧ߧ, ݧէާѧ, ԧ֧ߧ, ѧݧ. էݧ֧ӧڧ ݧѧ ֧ۧ ҧ ߧ ߧڧ ܧѧ٧ѧ ֧֧٧ߧԧ ڧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ۧҧѧߧ-ѧߧ. ݧܧ ݧ ԧ ܧѧ ٧ѧӧѧڧ ֧٧, ݧѧ-֧ۧ ֧ڧݧ ѧӧڧ , էߧѧܧ ѧާ ߧѧѧݧ է ާ֧. ֧ѧ ֧ާ ߧѧ٧ߧѧڧݧ էӧ ֧֧ާߧڧܧ, ֧ԧ ߧӧ֧ - ѧէ ѧ-ѧާڧߧ ٧ѧѧ ֧ۧߧ. ѧ٧ߧԧݧѧڧ ާ֧اէ ߧڧާ ܧڧݧ ѧէ֧ߧڧ ֧ѧ. 1507 . ֧ۧҧѧߧ-ѧ ӧݧѧէ֧ ֧ѧ.

֧ӧߧѧѧݧߧ ݧڧ֧ ԧէѧӧ ֧ۧҧѧߧڧէ ѧ ѧާѧܧѧߧ. ֧ڧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧѧۧէݧݧ-ѧߧ (1533-1539 ԧ.), ߧ֧ާ ߧ ݧاߧ ӧ֧ߧߧ-ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ҧѧߧӧܧ, ҧݧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ է֧ݧݧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ߧѧܧ ܧݧ. ҧѧۧէݧݧ-ѧ ҧ ֧ߧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ֧ݧӧ֧ܧ, ާѧ֧ܧ է֧ܧݧѧާڧӧѧ ѧ ߧѧҧէڧ ֧ԧ ܧާާ֧ߧѧڧާ ߧ ܧܧ ٧ܧ, ҧ էѧ֧ߧߧ ֧ӧ ާ٧ܧѧߧ. ڧާ֧ߧ֧ ҧէݧݧ-ѧߧ II (1557-1598) ӧ٧ѧߧ ܧ ٧էѧ ֧էڧߧ ڧݧߧ ԧէѧӧ. 1557 ԧէ ӧݧѧէ֧ ѧ, ܧէ ݧ 1561 ԧէ ҧݧ ֧֧ߧ֧֧ߧ ݧڧ, ԧէѧӧ ѧݧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧ ѧܧڧ ѧߧӧ. ԧէ ֧ԧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧ֧ݧӧ ڧߧݧ ڧѧۧڧ ѧ٧ާѧ. ߧ֧ ҧ ا֧ ާ ֧ާڧߧ ֧֧ ֧ܧ ѧѧѧ, ѧܧا ާߧԧڧݧ֧ߧߧ ާ֧է֧ ѧݧ ѧ. ѧ ڧ ֧ݧ ѧߧѧާҧݧ - ާ֧֧, ާ֧է֧, اڧݧ է էԧڧ ٧էѧߧڧ ӧܧ ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ڧާѧާ ҧҧѧܧ ѧѧէ.
ݧ ާ֧ ҧէݧݧ-ѧߧ 1598 ԧէ ߧѧէ֧اէ ߧ ٧էѧߧڧ ֧էڧߧԧ ԧէѧӧ ٧ҧ֧ܧ ߧݧ. ݧ֧էߧڧ ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ էڧߧѧڧ ֧ۧҧѧߧڧէ ڧާѧާާѧ ҧ էӧݧߧ ٧ѧէߧ ݧڧߧ ߧ ڧާ֧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧԧ ӧݧڧߧڧ ֧է է֧ݧߧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧. ާ֧ ѧӧڧ ߧѧڧӧ֧ ѧߧѧڧ֧, ӧܧ ԧڧ ާ֧اէҧߧ ҧҧ. ӧڧ֧ ֧ߧѧݧߧ ӧݧѧ ӧѧڧӧڧާ ѧߧ ҧ֧էܧ ߧ֧٧ѧާ֧էݧڧ֧ݧߧ ӧݧ٧ӧѧݧڧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧ ӧߧ֧ߧڧ ڧӧߧڧܧ ѧܧԧ ѧߧӧ. ԧ ڧѧߧܧڧ ѧ ҧҧѧ ٧ѧӧѧڧ ֧ҧ٧֧ӧѧ, ֧֧ ֧ѧ. ѧݧ ѧէڧ ӧ֧ԧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧߧڧܧ ѧާާѧէ ҧѧԧڧާ. ѧ٧ѧܧڧ ݧѧߧ ٧ѧӧѧڧݧ էڧ ڧ ܧߧ֧ۧڧ է֧ݧ - ѧܧ֧ߧ. ֧٧ ӧߧӧ ҧ֧ ѧާ֧ݧߧ. " ӧ֧ ԧէѧӧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧݧ ߧ֧էڧ ѧߧѧڧ, ߧڧܧ ߧ ֧ էڧߧڧ էԧާ", - ڧ֧ ڧ ԧէѧ ѧާާѧ ߧ. ֧٧ݧѧ ާ֧اէҧߧ ѧ֧ ӧۧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧݧ ѧߧӧ: ѧܧ, ڧӧڧߧܧ ܧѧߧէܧ.

1505 ԧէ ӧۧܧ ֧ۧҧѧߧ-ѧߧ ٧ѧӧѧڧݧ ֧٧. էߧѧܧ ا 1512 ԧէ ѧߧܧѧ ӧݧѧ ֧֧ݧ ܧ ݧҧѧ-ѧߧ, ֧էӧէڧ֧ݧ էԧ ӧ֧ӧ ܧ֧ӧ ٧ҧ֧ܧ. ԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ӧ֧է֧ ӧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ڧӧڧߧܧ ѧߧӧ, ݧڧ֧ ܧԧ ѧ٧ߧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ҧݧ ѧ٧ڧ, ߧ-ԧ֧ߧ, ڧӧ. ѧ ѧߧӧ, ާڧާ ֧٧ާ, ӧէڧ ѧ٧ڧ ѧߧԧݧѧܧ, ѧۧߧ ѧݧѧߧܧڧ ԧ, ֧ڧѧߧ, ٧ҧ ֧էߧ֧ԧ ѧѧߧ. ҧҧ ٧ ԧ֧ԧ֧ާߧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ѧܧڧ ѧߧӧ ڧӧڧߧܧڧ է ѧݧ ѧѧܧݧ, ѧէا, ѧէѧߧ٧ էҧڧѧݧڧ է ֧ާڧߧ. 1662 ԧէ ڧӧڧߧܧڧ ѧ ҧݧԧѧ٧ ݧ ֧֧էߧԧ ߧѧҧ֧ԧ ٧ѧܧݧڧ ާڧ ҧѧܧڧ ѧߧ ҧݧѧ٧ڧ٧. էߧѧܧ ߧѧҧ֧ԧ ߧ ѧ ҧݧ էݧا֧ߧ ֧ԧ ߧ ߧ-ѧߧ (1663-1687 ԧ.).
1685 ԧէ ڧӧڧߧѧ էѧݧ ٧ѧӧѧڧ ѧާѧܧѧߧ. էߧѧܧ ڧاէӧѧߧ ߧ-ѧ ֧֧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ӧߧاէ֧ ҧ ѧӧڧ ѧާѧܧѧߧ. ܧ ҧѧܧڧ ѧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ӧѧ ٧ѧԧӧ ڧ ߧ-ѧߧ, ܧ ѧӧӧѧ ߧ ߧѧ (֧ߧ). 1687 ԧէ ߧ ҧ ӧѧ֧ ݧ֧ݧ֧. 1688 ԧէ ҧѧܧڧ ѧ ҧѧߧܧݧ էҧڧݧ էڧߧ֧ߧڧ ڧӧ ߧѧ٧ߧѧڧ ֧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ѧ-ڧ٧, ӧݧ֧էӧڧ ڧߧӧ֧ԧ ڧ ѧߧ. ѧ-ڧ ֧ާڧݧ ܧ֧ڧ ѧߧܧ ӧݧѧ ӧҧէڧ ٧ѧӧڧڧާ ѧ.
֧ݧ 1700 ԧէ ӧѧۧߧ ѧ ѧӧڧ ֧ 1 ݧ ҧ ڧߧ ֧ԧ " ӧ֧ էӧݧѧߧ ֧ާ ߧѧէ" էէѧߧӧ ڧ. էէ֧اܧ ڧ, ӧڧէڧާ, ѧڧӧѧ ѧ ѧ-ѧާާѧ (1702-1714). ֧ڧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ڧԧѧ٧-ѧߧ (1715-1728) ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧ ֧էѧݧߧ ާ ѧ٧էڧѧݧ ԧէѧӧ ߧ ѧ. 1717 . ڧӧڧߧܧާ ѧߧӧ էѧݧ ֧ߧ ѧ٧ڧ ӧا֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ܧ֧էڧڧ ڧۧܧԧ ԧէѧӧ, ӧ٧ԧݧѧӧݧ֧ާ .֧ܧӧڧ-֧ܧѧܧڧ. ݧ ڧԧѧ٧ ѧߧ ѧ ݧҧѧ (1728-1740). ݧ٧ ӧڧ֧ ڧѧߧܧԧ ѧ ѧէڧ, ܧ ӧ֧ާ ֧էڧߧ ԧѧߧڧѧ ߧէڧ, ݧҧѧ ӧ֧ڧ ߧѧҧ֧ԧ ߧ ѧѧ. , ѧܧا ܧѧ ڧӧ ڧ٧ߧѧ ٧ѧӧڧڧާ ѧߧ ӧ֧ߧߧѧ էէ֧اܧ ֧ ѧ, ҧէڧݧ ѧէڧ-ѧ ֧էڧߧ ߧ ֧٧.
ҧ ѧ٧ѧѧ ݧҧѧ ֧֧ ѧا֧ߧڧ. ѧߧܧڧާ ӧۧܧѧާ ҧݧ ӧ٧ ѧߧܧ, ѧ ݧҧѧ ҧ ҧڧ ѧا֧ߧڧ. ݧ ֧֧էߧ֧ӧߧ ѧէ ѧէڧ-ѧ ӧ٧ ݧڧ. ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧѧ ѧ ڧӧڧߧܧ ѧާڧ ҧݧ ڧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧ ӧۧܧѧ ѧէڧ-ѧ. ڧӧ ҧ ѧا֧ ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ѧէڧ-ѧ ѧӧݧ֧ ڧѧߧܧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧. էߧѧܧ ߧ ֧ӧ֧ߧ ѧ ѧߧӧ ӧݧѧ ѧߧ ߧ ѧѧߧݧѧ. է֧ ֧է ѧѧݧ֧ ӧ֧էڧݧ ѧݧ - ҧ-ѧۧ, ѧߧ ѧݧԧ ܧѧ٧ѧܧԧ ݧ, 1730-1732 ԧէѧ ڧߧӧ֧ԧ ڧۧܧ էէѧߧӧ. 1741 ԧէ ڧӧڧߧ ӧѧݧ ڧ ѧߧ. ڧӧ ҧݧ ӧ٧ ӧѧӧڧާ, ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ ֧֧ҧڧ. ѧߧܧڧ ֧ ٧ѧߧ ѧݧ. ѧէڧ-ѧ, ٧ߧѧ ڧ ҧڧ, էѧ֧ ڧܧѧ ӧ֧ާ ߧ ѧݧݧ-ާڧ٧ ӧѧ ֧٧. ڧӧڧߧܧڧ ѧߧӧߧڧܧ, ҧӧӧѧӧڧ ӧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ѧݧ ߧ ֧, ֧ڧݧ ֧ ӧڧߧߧ. ڧ ҧ ѧէڧ ߧѧ٧ߧѧڧ ڧӧڧߧܧڧ ѧߧ ҧ ѧާާѧէ, ߧ ݧҧѧ. ѧݧ ҧ֧اѧ ֧. ֧֧ߧڧ 40- ԧէ 18 . ڧӧ ާ֧ߧڧݧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ѧߧ.

ݧ ާ֧ ѧڧ-ҧڧ 1758 ԧէ ާѧߧԧ ӧէӧڧߧݧ ߧ ާ֧ ާڧ ֧ԧ էէ, ѧӧڧ֧ݧ ڧѧߧܧѧݧ ѧߧڧ-ҧڧ (1758-1785). էߧѧܧ ֧ާ ߧ էѧݧ ѧߧڧ ا֧ܧ ֧ߧѧݧߧ ӧݧѧ. ߧ֧ܧݧܧ է֧ڧݧ֧ڧ ٧ѧߧݧڧ ާ֧اէҧڧ ݧܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ߧߧڧܧ ڧӧߧڧܧ ާѧߧԧ, է֧ݧߧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ ֧֧ߧէӧѧݧ ߧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާ. 1784 ԧէ ѧ ߧ֧էӧݧߧ ݧѧҧ ѧߧڧ-ҧڧ ԧاѧߧ էߧݧ ӧѧߧڧ, ѧߧڧ-ҧڧ ڧ ӧݧѧ ߧ ѧާѧէ (1785-1800). ӧӧӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ѧާѧ ߧѧѧ ԧ, ѧߧڧ էӧ ܧߧ֧ۧڧ ѧߧӧߧڧܧ - ѧӧݧѧ ܧҧ֧ԧ ڧ٧ѧާէէڧߧ ܧѧ٧ڧܧѧݧߧ, ҧڧ ڧ ܧ ߧ ԧݧѧ٧ѧ ڧէӧߧ. ѧ֧ ѧާѧ ا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ӧڧ اڧ֧ݧ ѧ ѧѧߧߧ ԧѧާ, ӧҧاէѧӧ ڧ է ߧѧݧԧ. ֧ܧ ԧѧާ ҧ ӧ֧٧ѧ ߧ ܧѧާߧ, ڧܧ֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ѧۧӧѧߧ ҧݧ ҧߧ ާ֧֧. ٧ѧާ֧ ֧էڧ ߧӧ ߧѧݧ "էا" ߧ է֧اѧߧڧ ӧۧܧ ݧѧ ӧۧߧ. ֧էڧ ӧڧ ܧѧ ӧݧѧ, ܧѧ٧ѧݧ ѧߧܧԧ ڧݧ, ѧӧѧ ާڧ.
֧ ѧէڧ ߧѧѧݧ ѧߧڧާѧߧէ, ٧ѧ֧ ҧݧԧѧ٧ ڧ ާܧ ڧߧԧڧ-ѧߧ, ܧ ֧ѧݧߧ ӧݧѧ ߧ ڧާ֧ݧ. 1785 ԧէ ѧާѧ ӧ֧ է֧ߧ֧اߧ ֧ާ, ߧѧѧ ӧܧѧ ݧߧ֧ߧߧ ֧֧ҧߧ ާߧ֧ 0,7 ާڧܧѧݧ (3,36 ), ѧܧا ߧڧڧڧӧѧߧߧ ٧ݧ ާߧ֧. ݧڧߧ ӧ٧ԧݧѧӧڧ է֧ҧߧ ӧ֧էާӧ. ѧާѧ ӧ֧ߧ ѧܧާ ާڧѧ ݧ֧ӧҧ֧֧ا ާէѧ ѧݧ ֧ӧ. 1786 ԧէ էѧӧڧ ӧѧߧڧ ܧԧ ֧ާڧߧ, ٧ѧ֧ ӧ֧ڧ ֧ߧ է ѧڧѧҧ էا֧ߧ. ѧާѧ ֧ߧ ӧ֧ӧѧ ѧԧѧߧܧڧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ڧާ-ѧ, ާ֧ ѧߧڧ ٧ ҧ ҧݧѧ اߧԧ ܧ֧ѧߧ, ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧߧ ٧ҧ֧ܧѧާ ѧէاڧܧѧާ. ԧէ ާڧ ѧۧէѧ (1800-1826) ݧڧ ֧ , ӧ֧ ѧӧ֧ѧߧߧѧ էڧߧݧ ֧ԧ ӧݧѧ. ݧ֧ߧڧ ѧۧէѧ ߧ ֧ ӧاէѧݧ ѧާ ާѧӧާ ӧѧߧڧާ. 1800 ԧէ ӧѧݧ ܧާ֧ߧ ֧ӧ. ܧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧ ާ֧اէҧڧѧ էҧѧӧڧݧѧ ӧۧߧ ܧѧߧէ ٧ ѧҧ, ܧ ѧۧէѧ էѧݧ .
ާڧ ѧۧէѧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧѧ ڧ֧ާ ֧էѧӧݧݧ ҧ ֧ߧѧݧڧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ާߧѧڧ, ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧ ߧ ѧҧݧڧ٧ާ. ާڧ ѧۧէѧ ڧާ֧ ҧܧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ѧѧѧ ڧݧ֧ߧߧ է 4 ֧ݧӧ֧. ӧ֧ݧڧڧݧѧ ѧާڧ. ݧܧ ѧ ߧѧڧӧѧݧ 12 ֧ݧӧ֧ ߧߧԧ ӧۧܧ. ާѧ ѧߧڧ ҧѧ֧, "ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ާڧ ѧۧէѧ ާاߧ ѧѧܧ֧ڧ٧ӧѧ ܧѧ ӧ֧ާ ҧ֧֧ӧߧ ֧էѧݧߧ ӧۧ, ܧ ӧ٧ߧڧܧѧݧ ܧѧاէ 3-6 ާ֧֧". ѧۧէѧ ߧѧݧ֧էӧѧ ֧ԧ ѧݧݧ (1826-1860). ҧ ڧڧ ֧ާ ӧݧѧ, ҧݧ ҧڧ ֧ԧ ѧڧ ҧѧ ֧ۧ ާѧ. ڧѧ ߧ ӧۧܧ էӧ֧ߧӧ, ѧݧݧ ӧ֧ ا֧֧ߧߧ ҧҧ ֧էѧݧߧ ѧ٧էҧݧ֧ߧߧ, ֧ާ ҧ٧էѧߧڧ ٧ߧѧ. ֧֧ߧڧ ֧ӧԧ ާ֧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ܧѧ٧ߧڧ ֧ا֧էߧ֧ӧߧ 50-100 ֧ݧӧ֧. էҧڧӧѧݧ ҧ֧էڧߧ֧ߧڧ ҧݧѧ֧, ߧާڧߧѧݧߧ ӧէڧӧڧ ѧ ާڧѧ. ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧڧݧѧާ ڧӧݧ֧ "ҧ֧٧էߧ" ݧէ֧, ݧߧ ҧ٧ѧߧߧ ֧ާ. ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧݧݧ ӧاէѧݧ ߧ֧֧ӧߧާ ӧۧߧѧާ ڧӧڧߧܧڧ ܧѧߧէܧڧ ѧߧӧѧާ ٧ է֧ݧߧ ԧѧߧڧߧ ֧ڧڧ - ֧, ѧէا, ѧҧ, էا֧ߧ. ߧ ҧݧ ڧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ѧڧѧҧ٧ ڧѧҧ. ڧ 1853 ԧէ ݧ ߧ֧էߧܧѧߧ ӧ֧ߧߧ է ߧ ҧݧ էڧߧ֧ߧ ѧ. ߧ ӧէڧݧ ѧ ާڧѧ ݧڧ էݧڧߧ ֧էߧ֧ ߧڧاߧ֧ ֧֧ߧڧ ѧѧѧߧ.

ߧѧѧݧ 18 ӧ֧ܧ ݧӧڧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧԧ ܧڧ٧ڧ ѧѧѧߧڧէܧԧ ѧߧӧ ѧ է֧ݧ֧ ֧ԧѧߧ. ҧѧ٧֧ ѧާ֧ݧߧ ԧէѧӧ ֧ߧ ܧѧߧէ, ԧէ ӧߧѧѧݧ ѧߧѧӧݧڧӧѧ֧ ӧݧѧ էا֧, ٧ѧ֧ ѧߧܧ էڧߧѧڧ ڧߧ. ѧߧӧ ӧܧݧڧݧ ֧ҧ ѧާѧߧԧѧߧܧ, ܧѧߧէܧ, ߧէڧاѧߧܧ ѧԧڧݧѧߧܧ ҧݧѧ. ֧ӧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ҧ ӧ٧ԧݧѧ֧ ѧ-ҧڧ ڧ ٧ҧ֧ܧܧԧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧ ާڧߧ. 1721-1722 ԧէ ѧ ҧ ҧڧ ֧٧ݧѧ ѧ٧է ާ֧اէ է֧ݧߧާ ԧڧӧܧѧާ ާڧ. ֧֧ާߧڧܧ ѧ ֧ԧ ҧէѧڧ-ҧڧ (1721-1733), ܧ ڧ֧էڧߧڧ էا֧ߧ ߧէڧاѧ, ѧܧا ӧէڧӧڧ ԧէ ѧܧ ѧߧӧ ѧާѧܧѧߧ, ѧѧܧԧѧ اڧ٧ѧ. ֧ڧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ԧ ҧѧ ҧէܧѧڧާҧڧ (1733-1748) ҧ ٧ѧӧ֧ӧѧ . ݧ֧էڧ էӧѧէѧ ݧ֧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧӧѧߧ ѧ ާ֧ߧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧.
1770 ԧէ ܧܧѧߧէܧѧ ٧ߧѧ ӧ٧ԧݧѧڧݧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ѧҧ (1770-1800). ާ էѧݧ էѧӧڧ ֧ѧѧڧ٧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ , ѧާѧߧԧѧߧ էا֧ߧ. ѧҧ-ҧڧ ݧѧ ӧۧܧ ѧܧ֧ߧ, էߧѧܧ ߧ ާ ܧڧ ԧ. ѧҧ-ҧڧ ߧѧڧݧ ߧڧ֧ݧߧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ܧۧӧڧ, ҧݧѧԧӧߧ ܧѧ٧ѧݧ ߧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ. ݧ ѧڧ֧ߧ ڧ֧ݧߧѧ ڧ֧ާ, ӧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧ ߧӧ ާ֧է֧, .. ާ֧է֧ ڧ. ѧҧ ާ֧ߧڧ ֧ԧ ݧڧާҧ֧ (1800-1809), ܧ ٧ߧѧڧ֧ݧߧ ӧ٧ݧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ٧ߧѧ֧ߧڧ ܧѧߧէ. 1805 ԧէ ԧէѧӧ ڧڧѧݧߧ ҧݧ ҧӧݧ֧ߧ ܧѧߧէܧڧ ѧߧӧ, ݧڧާҧ֧ܧ ҧ ڧӧ֧ ڧ «ѧߧ». ٧էѧ ߧѧ֧ާߧ ӧۧܧ, ӧ֧ ڧ ԧ֧-ѧէاڧܧ, ѧӧ֧ ֧ԧ ҧҧ ٧ ֧ߧѧݧڧ٧ѧڧ ӧݧѧ. ݧڧާѧ էڧߧڧ ѧܧ֧ߧ ֧ԧѧߧ, ӧ֧ڧ ާߧԧڧݧ֧ߧߧ է ߧ -ҧ. ֧٧ݧѧ ٧ѧԧӧ ݧڧާѧ ҧ ҧڧ ߧ ֧ ҧ ӧ٧ӧ֧է֧ ֧ԧ ҧѧ ާѧѧ (1809-1822). ٧ѧܧݧڧ էԧӧ ҧѧܧڧ ާڧ ѧۧէѧ ڧ֧էڧߧڧ ѧߧӧ ٧֧ާݧ ܧѧ٧ѧ է էѧ. ֧֧֧֧ߧڧ է ڧ ѧܧ֧ߧ, ѧ ڧӧ ާѧѧ ڧ ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ -ާ֧֧. ާѧѧ ڧާ֧ ڧ "ӧݧѧէܧ ѧӧӧ֧ߧ" - "ާڧ -ާݧڧާڧ", ֧ܧѧߧڧ ާߧ֧ ӧڧ ڧާ֧ߧ֧. ߧ֧ ҧݧ ӧӧ֧է֧ߧ ѧէާڧߧڧѧڧӧߧѧ ڧ֧ާ, ڧݧ٧ӧѧӧѧ ѧܧ ѧߧӧ.
ѧݧ֧էߧڧܧ ާѧѧߧ ѧ 12-ݧ֧ߧڧ ѧާާѧ ݧڧѧ (ѧէѧݧڧѧ) (1822-1842). ڧӧѧ ާݧէ ѧߧ ֧ӧ ԧէ ԧէѧӧ ѧӧڧݧ ֧ԧ ާѧ – ӧէѧڧ֧ ֧ էڧѧҧ֧ԧڧ, ܧѧ ӧߧ֧ݧ ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ӧܧݧѧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ܧݧ ڧܧӧ ܧѧߧէ. ѧէѧݧڧ ӧ֧ڧ ֧ߧ է ߧ ܧ֧ѧ ѧԧѧ, ҧ էڧߧڧ ԧߧ ѧէاڧܧ ٧ ݧѧۧܧڧ ֧ҧ. ֧ԧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧӧ ҧݧ ٧էѧߧ ѧ٧ӧڧѧ ڧڧԧѧڧߧߧѧ ڧ֧ާ, ܧ֧ڧݧڧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ԧӧ ӧ٧. ֧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧݧ ֧ԧ "ԧѧ٧" (ҧ֧ ٧ ӧ֧), էߧѧܧ էӧ֧ߧӧ ڧѧݧ ֧ԧ ҧԧߧڧܧ. ڧӧߧڧܧ ѧߧ ѧӧڧݧ اѧݧҧ ҧѧܧާ ާڧ ѧݧݧ. 1840 ԧէ ҧѧܧڧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ ߧѧѧӧڧ ܧѧߧ ӧ֧ԧ ݧ ֧ӧ, ܧ ѧէѧݧڧѧ ڧ٧ߧѧӧѧݧ ܧѧڧ (ߧ֧ӧ֧ߧ). ֧֧ ߧ֧էѧ ѧا֧ߧڧ ӧۧܧѧާ ާڧ ѧݧݧ, ѧէѧݧڧѧ ڧ٧ߧѧ ֧ҧ ӧѧѧݧ ѧ ҧ ӧߧاէ֧ ڧ էا֧ߧ. էѧا ݧ ԧ ߧ֧ߧڧ ާ֧اէ ѧ ܧѧߧէ էݧاѧݧ ҧ. ֧٧ݧѧ 1841 ԧէ ѧާާѧ ݧڧѧ ܧѧ٧ѧݧ ߧ ݧ٧ ӧ֧ԧ ާݧѧէ֧ԧ ҧѧ ݧѧߧ ѧާէѧߧ.
ݧ ֧ԧ 1842 ԧէ ާڧ ѧݧݧ ӧߧӧ ٧ѧӧݧѧէ֧ ܧѧߧէ. ڧܧѧ٧ ާڧ ҧݧ ܧѧ٧ߧ֧ߧ ѧէѧݧڧѧ, ֧ԧ ҧѧ ݧѧ ѧާէѧ ާѧ էڧѧҧ֧ԧڧ, ѧܧا ӧܧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ڧߧӧߧڧܧ. ܧѧ٧ ѧݧݧ ѧߧӧ ѧ ѧӧڧ ֧ԧ ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ, ܧ ҧݧاڧ ا֧ݧ ߧѧݧԧӧ ҧ֧ާ֧ߧ֧ اڧ֧ݧ֧ ܧѧߧէ. ڧԧ ݧ֧ 1842 ԧէ ѧߧӧ էߧݧ ާ֧, է ܧԧ ҧݧ ҧڧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧߧڧܧ ާڧ, ߧ ާ֧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ ܧѧߧէ ҧ ӧէӧڧߧ ѧߧ ݧ֧ާߧߧڧ ҧ-ҧڧ – ֧ѧݧ. ާڧ ѧ ѧݧݧ ӧߧӧ ѧاէѧ֧ ܧѧߧ. 40 էߧ֧, ݧڧ ҧ֧ߧڧ ӧا֧ߧڧ ڧӧڧߧܧԧ ѧߧ ݧݧܧݧڧߧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ ֧ԧ ާڧѧ, ҧ ӧߧاէ֧ ߧ ѧէ ӧ֧ߧ ҧѧߧ.
ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ѧݧڧѧߧ (1842-1845 ) ݧާѧߧܧ ڧ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧ ܧڧѧܧ, է֧ۧӧӧѧӧڧ ֧ԧ ڧէ ߧ , ҧ ߧѧ٧ߧѧ֧ ާڧߧԧҧѧ (ܧާѧߧէڧ ӧۧܧѧާ). ݧ֧էߧڧ, ӧ ֧֧է, ٧ѧݧߧڧ ҧݧڧߧӧ ҧ֧ӧ է ӧڧާ ݧ֧ާ֧ߧߧڧܧѧާ. ݧ٧ ӧڧ ӧݧڧߧڧ֧ ֧է ӧڧߧ, ѧݧ ӧ٧է֧ۧӧӧѧ ߧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ, ߧ ֧ѧݧڧѧ ߧ էէѧӧѧݧ ߧ .
էҧڧӧڧ ӧ֧ ֧ݧ, 1845 ԧէ ݧާѧߧܧ ԧѧߧڧ٧֧ ܧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ѧߧ, ܧԧէ ߧѧѧӧڧݧ էݧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧߧ, ӧߧӧ֧ԧ ڧ-٧ ߧ֧էӧݧӧ ҧݧѧԧѧ֧ާާ ߧѧݧԧѧާ. ݧ ҧڧۧӧ ֧ѧݧڧѧߧ ٧ѧߧ ݧڧާѧߧ - ѧ. ѧէ ѧߧ֧ߧڧ ӧݧѧ ӧߧاէ֧ߧ ڧ٧ߧѧ֧ ֧ҧ ӧѧѧݧ ѧܧԧ ާڧ. ԧէ ݧާѧߧܧ ѧߧ֧ ֧ԧ ӧ٧ӧէڧ ߧ ֧ ߧ ֧ѧݧڧѧߧ – էק, ا֧ߧڧ ֧ԧ ߧ ӧ֧ է֧.
ݧ٧ӧѧӧڧ ާݧէ ѧߧ, ݧާѧߧܧ ѧܧڧ֧ܧ ڧҧѧ ӧݧѧ ӧ ܧ. ѧߧ, ѧ٧էѧ ҧݧڧߧӧ ӧܧڧ ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ ܧڧѧܧ. -٧ ԧ ܧѧߧէܧ ѧߧӧ ڧݧڧݧ ߧ֧էӧݧӧ ݧާѧߧܧ ҧ ѧߧ֧ էݧاߧ ާڧߧԧҧѧ.
֧ڧ ӧѧߧӧڧ ӧ ӧݧڧߧڧ, ݧާѧߧܧ ӧѧۧߧ ѧ֧ ѧߧӧڧ ӧ٧ ֧էѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ܧާѧߧէӧѧߧڧ ڧۧܧڧ ӧۧ .. ֧ݧާڧߧӧ-֧ߧӧ. ٧ߧѧ , ܧܧѧߧէܧѧ ٧ߧѧ, ҧ ڧ٧ҧѧӧڧ ܧڧѧܧ, ֧֧ާѧߧڧӧѧ֧ ߧ ӧ ߧ էקѧߧ. 1853 ԧէ ܧѧߧէ ߧѧѧݧѧ ާѧӧѧ ֧٧ߧ ܧڧѧܧ, ݧާѧߧܧ ҧ ӧ٧ ݧ֧ ٧ѧ֧ ܧѧ٧ߧ֧.
ӧߧ֧ߧߧ ҧҧ ٧ ߧ ߧ ֧ܧѧڧݧѧ. ڧߧӧߧڧܧ, ߧ֧ܧԧէ է֧ۧӧӧѧӧڧ էקѧߧ ѧߧ֧ߧڧ ݧާѧߧܧݧ, ѧާ ӧڧݧ ٧ѧԧӧ ڧ ߧ֧ԧ. է֧ۧӧڧ ܧѧ٧ѧݧڧ ҧ֧٧֧ߧާ. 1852 1865 ԧ ߧ ֧ ҧݧ ӧ٧ӧ֧է֧ߧ ߧ֧ܧݧܧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧. 1865 ԧէ ܧѧߧէ ܧڧѧܧ ܧڧԧڧ٧ ҧӧڧݧ էۧܧݧҧ֧ܧ ѧߧ, ܧ ߧѧէڧݧ ӧݧѧ ӧ֧ԧ 14 էߧ֧ ҧ֧اѧ ѧԧѧ, ڧӧѧڧ ҧ ӧ էѧԧ֧ߧߧ ܧѧ٧ߧ. ֧٧ݧѧ էקѧ ҧ֧֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ٧ѧߧ ܧѧߧէ.
ڧ, ӧݧ٧ӧѧӧڧ ӧߧڧݧڧڧ֧ܧ ߧ֧ѧҧڧݧߧ, ߧѧѧݧ ѧܧڧӧߧ ҧ֧ӧ է֧ۧӧڧ ڧ ѧߧӧ. ֧٧ݧѧ 1853 1865 ԧէ ܧڧ ӧۧܧ ܧܧڧӧѧݧ ԧէ ܧѧߧէܧԧ ѧߧӧ - ܧާѧاڧ, ѧܧާѧ, ڧ֧ (ߧߧ֧ߧڧ ڧܧ֧), ӧݧڧק, ܧ֧ѧ, ڧާܧ֧ߧ ѧܧ֧ߧ, ѧܧا ڧݧ֧ԧѧڧ ߧڧ ֧ڧڧ. 14 ڧݧ 1867 ԧէ ڧާ֧ѧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ II ֧էڧ ܧ֧ѧߧܧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ѧ-ԧҧ֧ߧѧӧ, ܧէ ҧݧ ӧܧݧ֧ߧ ٧ѧӧѧ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧѧݧߧ ٧ڧ ٧֧ާݧ.
֧٧ݧѧ ڧۧܧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ܧѧߧڧ ӧݧѧէ֧ߧڧ ܧѧߧէܧԧ ѧߧӧ ٧ѧާ֧ߧ ܧѧڧݧڧ, ѧݧ ڧڧߧ ާ֧ߧ֧ߧڧ ߧѧݧԧӧ ݧ֧ߧڧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ܧѧ٧ߧ. ݧ ֧ ݧߧ֧ߧڧ ѧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧ ߧѧݧԧӧ ҧ֧ާ. ֧֧ߧڧ ӧ٧ӧѧݧ ߧ֧էӧݧӧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ, 1871 ԧէ ӧߧ ҧߧ, ܧ ֧ӧѧڧݧ էݧڧ֧ݧߧ ӧا֧ߧߧ ӧѧߧڧ, ӧ֧ ڧڧ ܧѧ «ѧߧڧ ݧѧѧߧ». ֧ ҧ էѧӧݧ֧ ܧڧާ ӧۧܧѧާ, ѧ ݧѧ ӧ٧ ݧ֧ ܧѧ٧ߧ֧ ާѧ 1876 ԧէ ѧԧڧݧѧߧ. ا ԧէ ֧֧ߧڧ ѧܧڧ ӧݧѧ֧ ܧѧߧէܧ ѧߧӧ ҧݧ ڧڧѧݧߧ ݧڧܧӧڧէڧӧѧߧ ӧާ֧ ߧ֧ԧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧ ֧ԧѧߧܧѧ ҧݧѧ ܧ֧ѧߧܧԧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ѧ-ԧҧ֧ߧѧӧ.

20- ԧէ 19 ӧ֧ܧ ܧߧܧ֧ߧڧ ܧڧ ӧѧѧާ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ѧݧ ٧էѧӧѧ ѧߧԧݧڧۧܧڧ ӧѧ. ֧ݧڧܧҧڧѧߧڧ ܧ ٧ѧӧݧݧ ӧ ֧֧ߧ٧ڧ ߧ ڧӧڧ ԧѧߧڧѧߧ, ѧߧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ. ݧ ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ڧڧ ߧ ѧ٧ڧѧܧڧ ߧܧѧ ڧ ٧էѧ֧ ݧԧߧ ѧާا֧ߧߧ ݧӧڧ էݧ ܧ է ܧڧ ӧѧ.
ڧܧݧѧ I ѧܧڧӧڧ٧ڧ֧ էڧݧާѧڧ֧ܧ, ٧ѧ֧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧӧڧ ѧܧ ڧ ֧ԧڧߧ. 1834 ԧէ ߧ ٧ҧ֧ܧܧڧ ѧߧӧѧ ҧݧ ֧ߧ ӧ-ݧ֧ܧѧߧէӧܧ ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ (. ѧߧԧݧѧ). ܧߧ 1839-ߧѧѧݧ 1840 ԧէ ԧ֧ߧ֧ѧ-ԧҧ֧ߧѧ ֧ߧҧԧ ԧѧ ֧ӧܧڧ ӧ֧ڧ ߧ֧էѧߧ ٧ڧާߧڧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ڧ ڧӧ. 1847 ԧէ ԧ֧ߧ֧ѧ ֧ ٧ѧߧ ֧ӧ֧-ӧߧ ҧ֧֧ا ѧݧܧԧ ާ ߧӧѧ ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ѧڧ (. ѧ٧ѧݧڧߧ). ݧ ٧էѧߧ ѧݧܧѧ ݧڧݧڧ, ӧѧ ڧ ѧէ "ڧܧݧѧ" "ߧѧߧڧ". 1850-1855 ԧ. ڧۧܧڧާ ӧۧܧѧާ ҧݧ ٧ѧӧѧ֧ߧ ܧܧѧߧէܧڧ ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ާܧԧѧ, ڧާܧԧѧ, ܧԧѧ, ܧ֧ -ާ֧֧ (٧-է), ٧ѧߧ էݧڧߧ ֧ܧ ݧ, ԧէ ߧӧѧߧ ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ֧ߧ.
ѧӧӧѧߧڧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ II ٧ѧӧ֧ӧѧߧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ӧڧݧ ߧ ֧ӧ ݧѧ ڧާ֧ܧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ ݧڧڧܧ ڧ. ӧէ էݧ էӧڧا֧ߧڧ ߧ ѧݧ ߧߧ ߧѧҧ֧ԧ ӧ֧ߧߧ է ܧѧߧէܧԧ ѧߧӧ ߧ ܧڧ ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ اߧ ѧ٧ѧѧߧ, ߧڧ٧ӧ էѧ ߧ ҧ֧֧ا ѧݧܧԧ ާ. 1865 ԧէ ԧ֧ߧ֧ѧ-ާѧۧ ..֧ߧ֧ ٧ѧӧѧڧ ѧܧ֧ߧ ٧ѧѧӧڧ ѧ֧ۧڧ ԧէ էڧѧ էԧӧ ֧֧ާڧڧ. ާ֧ѧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ II էѧ ܧѧ٧ѧߧڧ ֧ߧҧԧܧާ ԧҧ֧ߧѧ ڧߧ اڧ֧ݧ֧ ѧܧ֧ߧ ڧۧܧ էէѧߧӧ ݧѧ ڧ ҧ. ѧ ӧݧڧ֧ݧߧ ݧڧ, ԧӧ֧ ڧ ѧܧ֧ߧ, էڧѧݧ ѧܧ ҧѧ֧ߧڧ. 1866 ԧէ ڧۧܧڧ ӧۧܧ ٧ѧӧѧڧݧ էا֧ߧ ܧ֧ اڧ٧ѧ. ݧ ֧ߧ ܧ֧ ڧߧѧ. ڧۧܧ էէѧߧӧ ֧֧ݧ էا֧ߧ ѧڧڧܧܧڧ ܧѧ.
ڧݧ 1867 ԧէ ڧާ֧ѧܧڧ ܧѧ٧ ҧ ֧اէ֧ ܧ֧ѧߧܧڧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ܧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ѧ-ԧҧ֧ߧѧ. 1868 ԧէ ӧۧܧ ܧ֧ѧߧܧԧ ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ܧԧ ܧާѧߧէӧѧߧڧ֧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ѧ-ѧէѧߧ ѧާѧߧ ߧѧѧݧ ӧ֧ߧߧ է֧ۧӧڧ ڧ ѧܧԧ ѧߧӧ. ާѧ ڧۧܧڧ ӧۧܧ էݧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ ҧ֧ ҧ ӧݧ ԧ. ڧߧ ҧѧܧڧ ާڧ էڧѧ էԧӧ ֧֧ާڧڧ. ҧѧ٧ӧѧ ѧѧѧߧܧڧ ܧ. ԧ֧ߧ֧ѧݧ ҧѧާӧ ٧ѧӧѧӧѧ֧ ѧ ӧ٧ӧѧѧ֧ ֧ԧ ާڧ ҧѧܧާ. 1870 ԧէ ֧٧ݧѧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ѧڧ ԧ֧ߧ֧ѧݧ-ާѧۧ ҧѧާӧ ٧ѧӧ֧ӧӧѧ֧ ѧڧѧҧ ڧѧ. ѧڧѧҧ٧ܧ ڧѧҧܧ ҧ֧ܧӧ ֧֧էѧ ҧѧܧާ ާڧ. 1873 ԧէ ֧٧ݧѧ ܧߧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ѧڧ ҧݧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ӧѧߧ ߧѧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧ ڧӧڧߧܧ ѧߧӧ ߧ ܧ֧ѧߧ, ѧߧԧݧѧܧ ֧ߧҧԧ. ӧ֧ߧߧ է֧ۧӧڧ ڧߧݧ ѧڧ 49 , 32 ߧ, 34 էڧ, 2 ѧէ. ާѧ ӧ٧ ܧ֧ ѧ٧ѧѧ, ٧ѧ֧ ڧӧ, ٧էߧ֧ ٧ѧӧѧ֧ߧ ܧ֧ ߧԧѧ, էاѧۧݧ, ѧߧԧڧ ҧ֧ܧӧ ݧ֧. ѧӧԧ ҧ էڧѧ էԧӧ ֧֧ާڧڧ ڧӧڧߧܧڧ ѧߧ. ѧ ڧӧڧߧܧڧ ѧߧӧ ҧ ѧߧӧݧ֧ ֧ܧѧ ڧ, ӧݧѧ ѧߧڧݧѧ ٧ ѧާާ֧ ѧڧ-ԧէ-ѧߧ (֧٧). ֧ߧ 1873 . ҧ էڧѧ ߧӧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ էԧӧ ѧܧڧ ѧߧӧ.
1875-1876 ԧ. ֧٧ݧѧ ӧ֧ߧߧ է֧ۧӧڧ ֧ԧѧߧܧ էݧڧߧ ҧݧ էѧӧݧ֧ߧ ӧѧߧڧ ڧ է-ѧߧ ڧۧܧ ӧݧѧ. ܧѧߧէܧ ѧߧӧ ݧڧܧӧڧէڧ֧, ߧ ֧ԧ ֧ڧڧ ҧѧ٧֧ ֧ԧѧߧܧѧ ҧݧѧ ѧӧ ڧ. 1881 ԧէ ާ ӧ٧ ѧ-֧ܧڧߧܧڧ ѧ٧ڧ, ٧ѧӧѧ֧ ѧҧѧ. էڧѧߧ ܧߧӧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ԧѧߧڧ֧ߧڧ ާ֧اէ ڧ֧ ֧ڧ֧. 1884 ԧէ էڧߧ֧ ֧. 1885 ԧէ ڧۧܧ էէѧߧӧ ֧֧ݧ ܧާ֧ߧ ֧ߧէڧߧܧԧ ѧ٧ڧ ֧ܧ ԧѧ. ѧۧߧ֧ اߧ ܧ ԧѧߧڧ ڧ ѧݧ ܧ.
ѧܧڧ ҧѧ٧, 80- ԧէѧ 19 ӧ֧ܧ ܧߧѧ֧ݧߧ ާڧӧѧݧڧ ڧۧܧڧ ԧѧߧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ. 1895 ԧէ ڧۧܧ ҧڧѧߧܧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧӧ էڧѧݧ ԧݧѧ֧ߧڧ ѧ٧ԧѧߧڧ֧ߧڧ ٧ ӧݧڧߧڧ ֧է֧ݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ݧڧߧڧ ѧ٧է֧ݧ ԧѧ ѧާڧ.

20- - 40- XX

1924 . ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ ܧѧ֧ӧ էߧ ڧ ֧ҧݧڧ ӧ֧ ѧ ӧ֧ܧԧ ٧. ާѧ 1927 . ҧݧ ڧߧ ֧ӧѧ ߧڧڧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ. ԧէ ֧ѧ ݧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ߧѧէߧԧ ٧ۧӧ ܧݧ ֧ҧݧڧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ ڧԧѧݧ ާ֧ا֧ҧݧڧܧѧߧܧڧ ԧѧߧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ: ֧էߧ֧ѧ٧ڧѧܧڧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧ ӧ֧ (1923 .), ֧էѧ٧ӧէ, ֧էѧ٧ԧݧѧ է. էѧߧ ܧܧڧ ܧ ֧ҧݧڧܧ ҧݧ ݧڧܧӧڧէڧӧѧߧ ا֧ݧ ݧ֧էӧڧ ԧѧاէѧߧܧ ӧۧߧ. ާ ֧ާѧާ ݧ ާݧ֧ߧߧ. ѧڧҧݧڧ էӧڧԧ ڧ٧ݧ ާѧڧߧڧ֧ݧߧ, ާ֧ѧݧݧҧѧҧѧӧѧ֧ ߧ֧ԧ֧ڧ֧ܧ ѧݧ.
֧ڧ 1928 1942 . ӧڧݧ 515 ާݧ֧ߧߧ ֧էڧڧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧڧ, ڧݧ ܧ ڧڧܧܧڧ ݧ֧ܧڧާڧ֧ܧڧ ܧާҧڧߧѧ, ѧ֧ݧާѧ, ӧѧѧۧܧڧ ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ܧӧ ٧ѧӧ, ѧ֧ܧڧݧܧާҧڧߧѧ է. 1925-1929 ԧ. ҧݧ ӧ֧է֧ߧ ٧֧ާ֧ݧߧ-ӧէߧѧ ֧ާ. ݧ ݧߧ ֧ܧߧڧӧѧߧ ֧ݧܧ ٧ۧӧ ڧڧԧѧڧ, ا֧ߧ ߧӧ ܧѧߧѧݧ ӧէѧߧڧݧڧ. ѧާߧ ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ 1941 . ѧӧݧݧ 95%. ܧ֧ѧߧܧڧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ߧڧӧ֧ڧ֧ (1920) ֧ӧѧڧݧ ܧߧ֧ۧڧ ֧ߧ ӧ֧ԧ ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ. ܧߧ 20- ԧէ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ ߧܧڧߧڧӧѧݧ է֧ܧ ߧѧߧ-ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧܧڧ ֧اէ֧ߧڧ, ܧ էڧݧڧ ҧݧ֧ 1000 ߧѧߧ ѧҧߧڧܧ. 1930 . ݧڧ֧ ѧ . ѧܧ֧ߧ. ֧ӧѧݧ 1937 . ҧݧ ڧߧ ߧӧѧ ܧߧڧڧ ٧. ӧ֧ӧڧ ߧӧ ܧߧڧڧ֧ ݧ ӧҧ ֧ҧݧڧܧѧߧܧڧ ԧѧߧ ӧݧѧ, ܧ ӧ٧ԧݧѧӧڧݧ .ߧҧѧҧѧ֧ ѧۧ٧ݧݧ էاѧ֧. اڧ٧ߧ ֧ҧݧڧܧ, ܧѧ ӧ֧ԧ , ֧ܧѧݧ ٧ߧѧܧ ߧѧѧѧ֧ԧ ܧݧ ݧڧߧ ѧݧڧߧ ڧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧݧڧѧߧ ާ֧է ܧӧէӧ. ѧӧ ֧֧ڧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ ߧѧѧݧڧ ѧ֧ ӧڧէߧ ѧڧۧߧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ է֧֧ݧ֧. ԧѧߧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧԧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ () ѧҧڧܧӧѧݧ է֧ݧ ߧ֧ߧڧ .էاѧ֧ӧ, .ܧѧާӧ, .ѧߧاѧ է. ѧӧԧ-֧ߧҧ 1937 . ҧݧ ѧ֧ӧѧߧ ߧ ݧէ֧, ڧݧ ܧӧէڧ֧ݧ ܧާѧڧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ .ѧݧѧҧѧ֧, . էѧۧܧݧ, .֧֧, . ֧ާѧާ֧է, . ާѧߧ է. ӧ֧ߧ 1938 . ҧݧ ֧֧ڧӧѧߧ ҧݧ֧ 60% ֧ܧ֧ѧ֧ ҧܧާ, ԧܧާ, ѧۧܧާ ѧڧ.

(1941-1945 .)

22 ڧߧ 1941 . ֧ާѧߧڧ, ߧѧڧ էԧӧ ߧ֧ߧѧѧէ֧ߧڧ, ӧߧ֧٧ѧߧ ߧѧѧݧ ߧ . ا 23 ڧߧ ѧܧ֧ߧ ֧ ާߧԧߧ ާڧڧߧ, ߧ ܧ ѧܧ֧ߧ ӧѧ٧ڧݧ ԧӧߧ է֧ݧѧ ݧ ߧ ߧ ӧ ߧڧ ٧ѧӧڧ֧ էݧ ҧ֧է. ֧ӧ ާ֧ ӧۧߧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ ҧݧ էѧߧ 32 ٧ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧӧܧ ߧ ߧ. ߧҧ 1941 ԧէ ֧ҧݧڧܧ ҧݧ ާڧӧѧߧ 14 ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ҧڧԧѧ: 9 է֧ݧߧ ֧ݧܧӧ 5 ܧѧӧѧݧ֧ڧۧܧڧ.
1941-1943 ԧ. ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ ڧߧ ѧ٧ާ֧ڧ 1 ާڧݧݧڧ ҧ֧ا֧ߧ֧, ӧѧܧڧӧѧߧߧ ӧ٧ ӧ֧ߧߧާ է֧ۧӧڧާ ڧ ڧ, ܧѧڧߧ, ֧ݧڧ. ߧڧ - 200 է֧֧. ֧ߧߧѧ ҧѧߧӧܧ ֧ҧӧѧݧ ܧ֧ߧߧ ާ֧ ܧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ݧ. ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ ڧߧ ҧݧ֧ ާݧ֧ߧߧ ֧էڧڧ: ֧ߧڧߧԧѧէܧڧ ٧ѧӧ ֧ܧڧݧߧ ާѧڧ, ֧ݧާѧ, "ѧߧ ܧѧ", ѧݧڧߧԧѧէܧڧ ڧާܧާҧڧߧѧ, ާܧӧܧڧ ٧ѧӧէ "է֧ާߧڧ", "ݧ֧ܧѧߧ" ާߧԧڧ էԧڧ. ܧߧ 1941 . ҧݧ ӧӧ֧է֧ߧ ܧݧѧѧڧ ҧݧ֧ 50 ӧѧܧڧӧѧߧߧ ֧էڧڧ. ֧֧էڧߧ 1942 . ӧ ֧֧ҧѧ٧ڧӧѧߧߧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ ֧էڧڧ ѧҧѧݧ ߧ ݧߧ ާߧ, ѧӧݧ ߧ ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧڧܧ, ҧ֧ڧѧ, ߧѧا֧ߧڧ. ѧާԧ ߧѧѧݧ ӧۧߧ ҧݧ ֧֧֧ߧ ߧ ӧ ҧߧߧ էܧڧ ֧էڧڧ ֧ҧݧڧܧѧߧܧ ާݧ֧ߧߧ. ֧է ߧڧ - ѧ֧ݧާѧ, ѧӧ٧֧ާߧߧ, ڧڧܧܧڧ ݧ֧ܧڧާڧ֧ܧڧ ܧާҧڧߧѧ է. ֧ڧ ӧۧߧ 1941-1945 ԧ. ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ ӧӧ֧է֧ߧ է֧ۧӧڧ 280 ާݧ֧ߧߧ ֧էڧڧ. 1943 . է֧ݧߧ ӧ֧ ާݧ֧ߧߧ ߧѧէߧ ٧ۧӧ ֧ҧݧڧܧ ӧ٧ է 75%. ֧ߧ 1942 . ߧѧѧݧ ڧ֧ݧӧ ާ֧ѧݧݧԧڧ֧ܧԧ ٧ѧӧէ ֧ܧѧҧѧէ. ѧѧݧ ٧էѧߧڧ ӧ֧ߧ ާ֧ѧݧݧԧڧ ߧ ߧӧ ѧ٧ӧ֧էѧߧߧ ٧ѧѧ ӧݧѧާ, ާݧڧҧէ֧ߧ, ާ֧է . ݧ ӧӧ֧է֧ߧ ܧݧѧѧڧ ݧާѧݧܧܧ ާ֧էߧ ާ֧اէ֧ߧڧ.
1940 1943 ԧ. ٧ ֧ ڧ֧ݧӧ ߧӧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧڧ 3,5 ѧ٧ ӧ֧ݧڧڧݧ ڧ٧ӧէӧ ݧ֧ܧߧ֧ԧڧ. 1941 1945 ԧ. ҧݧ ֧ߧ 280 ߧӧ ֧էڧڧ, ֧էѧӧݧӧڧ ӧ ѧݧ ڧߧէڧ. ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ ѧ էߧڧ ڧ ߧӧߧ ѧ֧ߧѧݧ ѧߧ. ߧ ҧݧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧ ҧݧ֧ 2 ѧާݧ֧, ҧݧ֧ 1,7 ѧӧڧѧާ, ݧܧ ا ާڧߧާ֧, 22 ާݧ. ާڧ, 560 ߧѧէ, ܧݧ ާڧݧݧڧߧ ԧѧߧѧ, 330 ѧѧ, 5 ҧߧ֧֧٧է, ҧݧ֧ 100 ܧ. ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ӧէ. ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ ҧݧ ֧֧ҧѧ٧ڧӧѧߧ 22 ߧѧߧ-ڧݧ֧էӧѧ֧ݧܧڧ ڧߧڧ, 16 ӧ٧, 2 ҧڧҧݧڧ֧ܧ. 4 ߧҧ 1943 . ݧ ا֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ܧڧ ܧѧէ֧ާڧ ߧѧ. ֧ӧ ֧٧ڧէ֧ߧ ҧ ڧ٧ҧѧ .. ѧ-ڧ٧. ܧߧ 1944 . ѧ ܧѧէ֧ާڧ ѧ ӧէڧݧ 22 ߧѧߧ ֧اէ֧ߧڧ. 1943 . ֧ҧݧڧܧ ѧҧѧݧ 41 ӧ֧ ֧ҧߧ ٧ѧӧ֧է֧ߧڧ, ڧݧ 12 ӧѧܧڧӧѧߧߧ, 52 ֧էߧڧ ֧ڧѧݧߧ ֧ҧߧ ٧ѧӧ֧է֧ߧڧ. ԧէ ӧۧߧ ߧڧ ҧݧ էԧӧݧ֧ߧ ҧݧ֧ 20 ֧ڧѧݧڧ. ݧ֧ ާڧݧݧڧߧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ֧ ѧاѧݧڧ ߧ ߧѧ ӧۧߧ. ݧ ٧էѧߧ է֧ܧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧ ӧۧܧӧ ާڧӧѧߧڧ. ߧԧڧ ڧ ߧڧ ҧݧ ߧѧԧѧاէ֧ߧ է֧ߧѧާ ݧڧݧ ٧ӧѧߧڧ ԧӧѧէ֧ۧܧڧ. ڧߧ-٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ ڧߧڧާѧݧ ѧڧ ҧߧ ֧ܧ ܧ֧ (.ҧէݧݧѧ֧, . ݧڧ֧, ѧ֧, , ѧ֧ߧܧ ., .ѧ֧ է.), ڧ֧ӧ, ާݧ֧ߧܧ, է֧, ֧ӧѧݧ էԧڧ ԧէ.

1945-1991 .

ݧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ ֧ڧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ էݧاڧݧ ֧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ާߧԧѧݧ֧ӧ ާݧ֧ߧߧ ѧ٧ӧ֧ӧݧ֧ߧߧ ѧߧߧ ߧ֧ԧ֧ڧ֧ܧ ڧ֧ާѧާ. է ֧ӧѧѧ ߧѧߧ ܧݧߧ ֧ߧ. 1947 ԧէ ܧӧѧ֧ էѧӧ֧ߧߧ ѧܧѧէ֧ާڧ֧ܧڧ ҧݧ ֧ѧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ, 1964 ԧէ ֧ѧ ֧ ҧѧݧ֧ - ѧާѧܧѧߧէ. ֧ݧܧ ٧ۧӧ ֧֧ӧ֧է֧ߧ ߧ ڧߧ֧ߧڧӧߧ ާ֧է ާ֧ѧߧڧ٧ڧӧѧߧ. 1984 ԧէ ӧ֧ߧ 4175 ԧ֧ܧѧ ֧ӧߧ ݧѧէ֧, ڧ ܧ 2056 ԧ֧ܧѧ ݧ. ܧӧէӧ ֧ҧݧڧܧ ݧ ӧۧߧ ѧ٧ߧ ԧէ ֧ӧݧݧ ., .ڧ٧, .ڧէڧߧ, .ѧڧէ.
80- ԧէѧ ӧڧ ݧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧԧ ڧէ֧ݧԧڧ֧ܧԧ ܧڧ٧ڧ. ֧ߧҧ֧اߧ ֧ߧէ֧ߧڧ ܧѧ٧ѧݧڧ ڧݧߧ֧. ѧէ, اڧӧѧӧڧ ߧ ֧ڧڧ , ӧݧ ާ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ߧ ѧܧ ӧ֧ߧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧԧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ӧ֧ԧ ߧѧڧߧѧݧߧԧ ѧާ٧ߧѧߧڧ, ݧڧڧ֧ܧѧ, ܧߧާڧ֧ܧѧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧѧ ٧ѧӧڧڧާ ٧, ѧݧ ֧ާ ѧܧѧާ, ܧ ާ٧ڧݧ էѧݧߧ֧֧ۧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ܧѧاէ ֧ҧݧڧܧ. ݧ էѧݧߧ֧֧ۧԧ ԧ֧ ֧ҧӧѧݧڧ ߧӧ ݧӧڧ.

ҧ֧֧ߧڧ ԧէѧӧ֧ߧߧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ 31 ѧӧԧ 1991. ڧ٧ݧ ߧ֧ ݧڧڧ֧ܧڧ ڧѧݧߧ-ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧ ݧӧڧ. ѧ ܧѧ ߧ ا֧ߧڧ 130 ݧ֧ ԧէӧӧѧӧڧ ܧݧߧڧѧݧߧ ֧اڧ ߧ էѧӧѧ ӧ٧ާاߧ էݧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާԧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ֧ҧݧڧܧ.
ҧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާ ѧӧڧݧ ֧֧ ߧѧէ ܧӧէӧ ѧߧ ٧ѧէѧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ܧ֧ߧߧ ֧. ֧٧ݧѧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ ݧڧڧܧ ӧէڧާ ѧӧڧ֧ݧӧ ӧ ԧݧѧӧ .ѧڧާӧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ ҧ ڧ٧ߧѧ ާڧӧ ҧ֧ӧ ܧѧ֧ӧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާԧ ԧէѧӧ. ֧֧ߧڧ ܧܧԧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ ֧է֧ݧڧ ҧӧ֧ߧߧ ާէ֧ݧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ.
ѧ٧ѧҧѧߧߧѧ ӧߧ֧է֧ߧߧѧ ֧٧ڧէ֧ߧ .ѧڧާӧ «٧ҧ֧ܧܧѧ ާէ֧ݧ» ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ٧էѧݧ ӧ էݧ ڧѧݧߧ-ܧߧާڧ֧ܧԧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ѧߧ. ܧܧ ӧ֧ާ ҧݧ ҧ֧֧֧ߧ ٧֧ߧӧѧ ߧ֧ߧѧ ߧ֧٧ѧӧڧڧާ. ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ ڧ ѧԧѧߧ-֧ӧ ѧߧ ֧ӧѧڧݧ ҧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧ, ܧڧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧ߧڧܧ ֧ߧݧԧڧ ѧߧ. ѧӧڧݧߧ ڧ٧ҧѧߧߧԧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ էӧ֧էڧ ߧѧѧӧڧۧ 2008 . ާڧӧ ڧߧѧߧӧ-ܧߧާڧ֧ܧڧ ܧڧ٧ڧ. «٧ҧ֧ܧܧѧ ާէ֧ݧ» ֧ߧ ӧէ֧اѧӧѧ ڧѧߧڧ ܧڧ٧ڧ, ٧ѧݧا֧ߧ ݧڧݧ ӧܧڧ ݧاڧ֧ݧߧ ֧ߧܧ ާ֧اէߧѧէߧ ڧߧѧߧӧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ ܧ֧.
ڧ֧ܧڧ ܧѧ٧ӧѧ֧, ߧ էߧ ԧէѧӧ ߧ ާا֧ ѧ٧ӧڧӧѧ ӧ ާڧӧԧ ҧ֧ӧ. ֧٧ݧѧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ҧѧݧѧߧڧӧѧߧߧ ӧߧ֧ߧ֧ ݧڧڧܧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ ҧ ڧ٧ߧѧ ҧݧ֧ ֧ 180 ѧߧѧާ ާڧ, 130 ѧߧѧާ ҧݧ ѧߧӧݧ֧ߧ էڧݧާѧڧ֧ܧڧ ߧ֧ߧڧ. ֧ҧݧڧܧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ ӧݧ֧ ݧ֧ߧ ѧܧڧ ѧӧڧ֧ߧ ާ֧اէߧѧէߧ ԧѧߧڧ٧ѧڧ ܧѧ , , է.
֧ԧէߧߧڧ է֧ߧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ ֧ӧݧ֧ էӧߧߧ֧ ӧ٧ѧڧާӧԧէߧ էߧڧ֧ӧ ܧߧާڧ֧ܧ, ݧڧڧ֧ܧ ܧݧߧ ֧ѧ ѧߧѧާ ֧ӧ֧ߧ اߧ ާ֧ڧܧ, ӧ, ݧڧاߧ֧ԧ ܧ ٧ڧ.