٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ — ѧާѧ ߧѧѧ ܧӧڧߧڧ ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ѧާߧڧܧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ. ӧ֧ ֧ԧ ֧ڧڧ ԧէ, ܧ ѧާ ӧ֧ާ ѧӧڧݧ ӧ «ѧӧԧѧ», ڧ֧ ҧݧڧߧӧ ڧ ߧڧ ߧѧէڧ ֧ܧѧߧ ߧڧ, ߧ֧ާ ߧ ҧߧ ڧڧ ٧֧ާݧ.
 
ѧܧ֧ߧ — էڧ ڧ ѧާ ҧݧڧ է֧ӧߧڧ ԧէ ֧ߧѧݧߧ ٧ڧ — ݧڧ ֧ҧݧڧܧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧ. ֧ӧ ӧ֧է֧ߧڧ ѧܧ֧ߧ ܧѧ ԧէܧ ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ է֧اڧ է֧ӧߧ֧ӧߧ ߧڧܧѧ II . է . .; ڧѧۧܧڧ ڧߧڧܧѧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧݧ ߧ; ߧѧէڧ 262 . է . . ֧ڧէܧԧ ѧ ѧ I ߧ «ѧѧҧ ѧ» ѧܧ֧ߧܧڧ ѧ٧ڧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧݧ ѧ. ѧ ӧݧݧ ֧֧ܧ֧ܧ ߧ ܧ ٧ݧ, էѧԧ֧ߧߧ ܧѧާߧ֧, ߧ֧ ӧ֧ݧڧܧݧ֧ߧ ݧѧէ֧ էԧڧ ԧէѧ ԧէѧӧѧ. ֧ԧէߧ ѧܧ֧ߧ, ֧֧ӧէ ٧ҧ֧ܧܧԧ ٧ߧѧѧڧ «ѧާ֧ߧߧ ԧ», — ݧڧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ֧ҧݧڧܧ, ѧߧڧ ӧڧէ֧֧ݧӧ ݧԧ, ѧާ ާߧԧڧ ҧڧ ڧڧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ, — էڧ ڧ ѧާ ҧݧڧ ڧߧէڧѧݧߧ ֧ߧ ֧ߧѧݧߧ ٧ڧ, ߧѧ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ֧ ҧݧ֧ 2 ާڧݧݧڧߧ ֧ݧӧ֧.
ݧڧ ѧߧ — ѧܧ֧ߧ, ѧݧا֧ ֧էԧ ߧ-ѧߧ, ѧާ ֧ߧ ӧ֧֧ԧ ѧ٧ڧ էݧڧߧ ֧ܧ ڧڧ. ߧԧڧ ӧ֧ܧ ѧܧ֧ߧ ҧ ֧֧֧֧ߧڧ֧ ѧ٧ݧڧߧ ԧӧ ֧, ާڧӧѧݧ ֧٧ӧѧۧߧ ѧ٧ߧҧѧ٧ߧ ҧݧڧ ԧէ. ֧ӧѧ ڧߧާѧڧ է֧ӧߧ֧ ѧܧ֧ߧ ӧݧ֧ ӧߧ ݧ֧ڧ II ӧ֧ܧ է . . ѧѧӧѧߧ, ڧէڧ ֧ݧڧܧާ ֧ݧܧӧާ , էڧݧ ֧֧ ԧ ѧ (է֧ӧߧ֧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ ѧܧ֧ߧ). VIII—XI ӧ. ԧ ߧѧ٧ӧѧݧ ڧߧܧ֧ߧ. ԧէߧ ѧݧا֧ߧڧ ֧է֧է֧ݧڧݧ ӧҧ ԧէ ݧڧ֧ ֧ҧݧڧܧ ا ߧѧ էߧ. ܧڧ ӧ֧اէѧ, է֧ӧߧ ٧է֧ ݧ ܧѧڧӧ էӧ ֧է ٧֧ݧ֧ߧ ѧէ, ާ֧֧֧ ֧ߧڧ ݧڧ.
ӧ֧ާ ӧ֧ԧ ֧ӧӧѧߧڧ ԧ ֧֧ߧק ܧѧ ӧ٧ݧק, ѧ ѧէ֧ߧڧ, ߧ ӧ֧ԧէ ѧӧѧݧ ߧ ֧֧֧֧ߧڧ ֧ ާ֧اէߧѧէߧ ԧӧݧ, ѧ ا ҧ ֧ߧ ܧݧ ڧܧӧ. ѧߧڧݧ ާߧا֧ӧ ާ֧֧֧, ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧֧ (էڧ ڧ ݧڧ — ѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ߧ-ѧߧ), ާڧߧѧ֧, ֧ է֧ۧӧڧ ާ֧է֧ ܧ֧ݧէѧ (XV ., ߧ֧էѧӧߧ ҧݧ ֧ѧӧڧӧѧߧ), ާ֧է֧ ѧѧ-ѧߧѧ ާ֧է֧ ҧէ-ѧ- (XVI .), اڧӧڧߧ ާ֧֧ اѧާ (XVI .), ڧ٧- (XIX .) ѧۧѧҧѧ- (XVIII—XIX ӧ.). ѧܧا ѧӧݧѧӧߧ ѧާ, ا֧ߧܧڧ ާߧѧ, ֧ܧӧ, ڧݧ էѧا ݧܧڧ ܧ֧ — ӧ֧֧ڧާ ާ֧ߧ ѧӧڧ֧ݧ֧ ҧݧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ էѧݧ֧ܧ ٧ ֧է֧ݧѧާ ѧߧ.
اߧ ֧ڧ ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ާ٧֧, ѧܧڧ ܧѧ ٧֧ ܧӧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ, է֧اѧڧ ҧݧ֧ 4000 ܧߧѧ ( ڧݧ ѧ֧ѧܧ ԧէڧۧܧԧ ֧ڧէ, ҧէէڧۧܧڧ ѧ, ӧ٧ѧ ܧ ҧݧ֧ 1 . ݧ֧, ܧݧӧ ֧էާ֧ ٧ѧڧ٧ާ), ٧֧ ڧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ. ѧާ ܧѧڧӧ ާ٧֧ ԧէ — ާ٧֧ ڧڧ ڧާڧէ (٧֧ ާڧ ֧ާ), ߧѧէڧ ѧާ ֧ߧ ԧէ ٧ѧݧاڧӧѧ֧ ҧ٧ѧ֧ݧߧԧ ֧֧ߧڧ ҧԧѧӧ ӧ֧ ܧ٧ڧڧ. ѧܧا ܧѧۧߧ ڧߧ֧֧ߧ էݧ ֧֧ߧڧ ѧѧ ѧ ѧܧ֧ߧ — ܧ-ѧѧ. ֧ާ ߧ ڧݧߧ ٧֧ާݧ֧֧ߧڧ, ߧߧ ڧէڧ ֧ۧާڧ֧ܧ ѧܧڧӧߧ ѧۧߧ, ާߧԧڧ ѧ ٧էѧߧڧ ݧڧ ߧ էڧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ѧߧڧݧڧ. ߧ ߧ «» ߧ ߧ ާ֧է֧ ܧ֧ݧէѧ — ߧ ܧߧ֧ۧڧ ҧԧѧ֧ۧڧ ԧӧ ֧ߧ ԧէ, ߧ ӧݧ֧ߧڧ ӧ֧ ݧ֧ԧ֧ߧ ֧ӧߧ֧ ܧ.
֧ԧէߧ ݧڧ ٧ҧ֧ܧڧѧߧ — ܧߧ֧ۧڧ ܧݧߧ ֧ߧ ߧ ݧܧ ѧߧ, ߧ ӧ֧ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ. ߧ֧ӧѧڧ, 9 ֧ѧ ( ڧݧ ӧ֧ާڧߧ ڧ٧ӧ֧ߧ էѧӧ֧ߧߧ ѧܧѧէ֧ާڧ֧ܧڧ ݧ ֧ѧ ֧ ҧѧݧ֧ ڧ. ѧӧ), ܧߧ֧ߧ ӧѧӧߧ ٧ѧݧ, ѧէڧߧ, ݧѧӧѧ֧ݧߧ ҧѧ֧ۧߧ, ҧڧҧݧڧ֧ܧ, ѧܧ, ӧ֧ڧ ѧէ ߧѧߧ, ߧ ѧӧ ѧӧߧէߧ ߧڧܧԧ. ֧ݧ֧ӧڧ٧ڧߧߧѧ ҧѧߧ ѧܧ֧ߧ — ѧާ ӧܧ ֧ߧڧ ֧ߧѧݧߧ ٧ڧ (ӧ — 375 ާ֧).
ڧ֧ܧڧ ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ѧާߧڧܧ ѧܧ֧ߧ:
· ֧է֧ ܧ֧ݧէѧ (14).,
· ѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ѧѧ-ѧ (15).,
· ڧ֧ܧߧ ѧߧѧާҧݧ ѧ٧ѧ ާѧ (16).,
· ֧է֧ ҧ ѧ (19).,
· ֧է֧ ѧѧ — ѧ (16).,
· ާ ާ֧֧ (19).,
· ٧֧ ާڧ ֧ާ — ֧է֧ӧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ѧڧ֧ܧ,
· ݧѧէ ާڧ ֧ާ,
· ݧѧէ ѧܧڧݧݧڧ,
· ݧѧէ اҧ ѧէ,
· ߧާ֧ߧ ا֧ӧ,
· ݧѧէ ѧ ާ,
· ڧݧݧ ֧ۧ ާ֧֧,
· ݧѧէ ѧէ,
· ѧӧ٧ݧ֧ .

ѧާѧܧѧߧ — էڧ ڧ է֧ӧߧ֧ۧڧ ԧէ ާڧ. ٧ӧ֧֧ ֧֧էڧߧ 1 ֧ݧ֧ڧ է . . ܧѧ ѧܧѧߧ, ާڧߧѧ֧ ߧڧܧѧ ݧ֧ܧѧߧէ ֧ݧڧܧԧ ܧѧ ݧ֧ԧ֧ߧէѧߧ ԧէڧۧܧڧ ѧڧѧ, ӧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ ڧߧԧڧѧߧ ا ҧ֧ ӧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ڧާ. ާڧ ڧާ ֧ԧ ӧߧܧ ݧԧҧ֧ܧ ԧ ڧާ֧ߧӧѧݧ ߧ ڧߧѧ ܧѧ ֧ݧڧܧڧ ѧާѧܧѧߧ. XIV—XV ӧ. ԧ ӧڧ ֧ڧ ߧ֧ӧڧէѧߧߧԧ ѧӧ֧ — ӧ٧ӧէ ڧѧէ֧ݧ ܧ֧ߧ ֧ߧ, ܧݧѧէӧѧ ڧܧڧ ݧڧ, ӧ٧ӧէ ԧѧߧէڧ٧ߧ ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ѧߧѧާҧݧ — ݧ-֧ԧڧѧ, ѧ-ڧߧէ, ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧ -ާڧ ڧҧ-ѧߧ, ֧ڧާ֧ ԧ ӧѧ֧ ԧڧԧѧߧܧڧ ܧݧ ڧ 13 ܧݧѧݧߧ ѧܧ ѧէ.
ѧާѧܧѧߧ ѧاѧ֧ ҧѧߧӧ ӧڧ ٧էѧߧڧ-ѧާߧڧܧ, ڧާ֧ߧߧ ٧է֧ ڧܧӧ ԧݧѧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ҧݧڧӧܧ էڧԧݧ ӧ֧ ӧ֧ ܧ — ߧ֧ ߧ ާѧݧ֧֧ۧԧ ѧܧ ӧ֧ߧ ٧էѧߧڧ ҧ֧ է֧ܧ. ѧܧԧ ҧ֧٧է֧اߧԧ ҧڧݧڧ ާߧԧӧ֧ߧ ߧѧާ֧ߧѧݧߧ ڧ֧, ٧ݧ ԧݧѧ٧ӧѧߧߧ ҧݧڧӧ, ߧ ٧ߧѧ֧ ߧ էߧ ѧڧ֧ܧ ާڧ ߧ է, ߧ ݧ. ܧڧ ڧާ֧ ݧاڧ ާ֧է֧֧ڧݧݧ-ѧ (XVII .), ݧڧӧѧ էѧا ߧѧ٧ӧѧߧڧ «٧ݧ֧ߧߧѧ» ҧݧѧԧէѧ ڧߧ֧֧ ܧݧߧԧ ٧ѧݧ, ӧݧߧ֧ߧߧԧ ڧ «ܧߧէѧݧ». ѧܧԧ ݧߧԧ ٧ݧ֧ߧڧ ݧ ԧާߧ ӧ֧ߧ֧ ߧ ٧ߧѧݧ էѧا ݧѧӧݧ֧ߧߧ ާѧ֧ ڧާ.
ݧѧӧߧѧ էڧާ֧ѧ֧ݧߧ ԧէ — էߧ ڧ ܧѧڧӧ֧ۧڧ ݧѧէ֧ ާڧ ֧ԧڧѧ (ݧ-֧ԧڧѧ, XV—XVII ӧ.), ܧا֧ߧߧѧ ѧܧڧ ܧݧڧ֧ӧ ӧ֧ݧڧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ է֧ӧߧڧ ٧էѧߧڧ, ާڧߧѧ֧ ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧֧, ѧާ ݧѧէ ܧѧا֧ ԧڧԧѧߧܧڧ ӧѧӧߧ ٧ѧݧ ڧڧ. ҧ֧ߧߧ ӧ֧ѧݧѧ ߧ ߧ֧ ӧ֧ ӧէ ݧߧ, ܧԧէ ԧݧҧܧڧ ֧ߧ ٧էѧ ѧާ ѧߧѧڧ֧ܧڧ ܧާҧڧߧѧڧ ӧݧ ѧާ ߧ֧٧ѧާ֧ߧ ߧ ֧ӧ ӧ٧ԧݧ ҧ֧ߧߧ ٧ ڧݧڧԧѧߧߧ ֧٧ҧ ܧѧާߧ, ܧѧѧ֧ ֧ߧ ѧݧ ܧاѧڧ ݧѧէ ֧ߧڧ.
اߧ ѧ ԧէڧ ѧڧѧ ߧݧ ߧڧܧѧݧߧ ߧ֧ܧݧ ѧ-ڧߧէ, ݧڧ-ܧݧѧէҧڧ, ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧߧѧ ڧާ ҧ֧ڧ ߧѧ ާ֧֧ާ ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧ާ XI–XV ӧ֧ܧ. ݧڧا ֧ߧ ԧէ ӧ٧ӧѧ ԧڧԧѧߧܧڧ ѧ٧ӧѧݧڧߧ ާ֧֧ ڧҧ-ѧߧ, ӧ٧ӧէڧӧ֧ۧ ڧܧѧ٧ ڧާ, ܧѧ ѧާ ҧݧ ٧էѧߧڧ ܧ. ܧ է֧ӧߧ ѧӧߧڧӧѧݧ ߧ֧ҧ֧ߧ ӧէ, ѧܧ ѧݧ — ݧ֧ߧ ֧. է֧ ا ߧ֧էѧݧ֧ܧ ߧѧէڧ ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ѧާԧ ڧާ ֧ԧ ާܧ — -ާڧ, ѧاѧڧ ӧڧާ ӧ֧֧ߧߧާ ڧާ ѧ٧ާ֧ߧ , ߧѧާڧߧѧڧ ԧڧԧѧߧܧڧ ԧݧҧ ݧѧ. ѧߧ֧ݧ ֧ԧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧ ֧ ӧݧߧ֧ߧ ڧ ا֧ݧ-٧֧ݧ֧ߧԧާѧާ, ѧڧѧߧ ڧߧ֧ ܧѧܧ է֧ݧѧߧ ٧ݧ ѧ, էܧݧߧ ѧߧӧ ٧էѧ֧ ֧ܧ ާ֧ѧߧڧ ӧ٧էߧ ӧ֧ԧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧ֧ԧ ҧ֧ާ ѧݧߧڧ.
ڧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ — ߧѧڧӧѧ֧ ڧҧݧڧ٧ڧ֧ݧߧ 2750 ݧ֧, ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ѧާߧڧܧ ߧڧ֧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧѧ ѧӧݧ֧ߧڧ էڧߧѧڧ ڧާڧէ ڧާ֧ ѧܧ ا ӧѧاߧ, ܧѧ ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ֧է֧ӧ է֧ӧߧ֧ԧ ԧڧ, ڧѧ, ߧէڧ, ֧ڧ ڧާ.
ڧ֧ܧڧ ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ѧާߧڧܧ ѧާѧܧѧߧէ:
· ֧ӧߧ֧ ֧ݧ֧ߧڧ ڧѧ (8- . . . .)
· ҧ֧ӧѧڧ ݧԧҧ֧ܧ (1428–1429),
· ڧ֧ܧߧ ѧߧѧާҧݧ ѧ ڧߧէ.
· ֧֧ ѧ٧ѧ ڧ٧ (֧֧էڧߧ 19-ԧ .)
· ֧֧ ڧҧ-ѧߧ (1399–1404).
· ֧է֧ ݧԧҧ֧ܧ (1417–1420)
· ֧է֧ ֧- (1619–1635/36).
· ֧է֧ ڧݧݧ- (1647–1659/60).
· ѧ٧ѧ (ܧߧ֧ 18-ԧ .)
· ѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ѧҧѧ (1380-).
· ѧӧ٧ݧ֧ -ѧѧ (1470).
· ѧӧ٧ݧ֧ -ާڧ (1404).
· ֧֧ ѧާ٧ԧ (17- .).
· ѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ѧ ߧ (1464).
· ߧѧާҧݧ ا (15–20 .).
· ѧӧ٧ݧ֧ (1430–440).
· ݧѧէҧڧ ا ҧէ ѧ (15-19ӧ.)
· ֧ާڧѧݧߧ ܧާݧ֧ܧ ާѧ ѧݧ-ѧ

ѧ — էڧ ڧ է֧ӧߧ֧ۧڧ ԧէ ֧էߧ֧ ٧ڧ, ѧѧ ݧ֧ԧ֧ߧէ ԧݧѧڧ, ߧ ӧ ާݧާѧߧܧڧ ԧէ ߧ֧ҧ ߧڧէڧ ӧ֧ ҧݧѧԧէѧ, ݧܧ ߧѧ ѧ էߧڧާѧ֧ ӧӧ֧. էڧӧڧ֧ݧߧ ԧ ߧ ӧէڧ ٧ ֧է֧ݧ ӧ֧ ԧէܧ ܧ֧ߧ ֧ߧ, ֧ߧߧ XVI ., ӧާ֧ڧ ֧ҧ ҧݧ֧ 200 ާ֧է֧ ާߧا֧ӧ ҧѧ٧ѧ, ߧ ܧ ާاߧ ҧݧ, ҧ֧ ֧ӧ֧ݧڧ֧ߧڧ, ܧڧ ѧҧݧߧ ӧ! էڧ ѧ ѧ, ߧӧѧߧߧ ֧ ֧ӧ ӧ֧ܧѧ է ߧѧ֧ , ڧէڧ ҧܧӧѧݧߧ ѧާߧڧܧѧ է֧ӧߧڧ ڧӧڧݧڧ٧ѧڧ. ӧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧߧ ҧݧڧ ԧ ڧҧ֧ ӧ ӧ֧ާ֧ߧ էڧߧѧڧ ֧ۧҧѧߧڧէ ѧѧߧڧէ XVI—XVII ӧ., ܧԧէ ҧݧ ֧ߧ ҧݧڧߧӧ ڧ ֧ԧ ڧ٧ާڧ֧ݧߧ ާ֧֧֧ ާ֧է֧, ܧѧѧӧѧ-ѧѧ֧ ҧѧߧ, ܧ֧ߧ ֧ ӧ, ѧܧا ܧߧ ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ѧߧѧާҧݧ ѧݧߧڧ. ߧѧڧ էߧ֧ ѧߧڧݧڧ ֧ߧ ѧڧߧߧ ڧѧէ֧ݧ, ҧݧ֧ 140 ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ѧާߧڧܧ ާݧާѧߧܧ (ާڧߧѧ֧ ѧݧ (XII .), ާ֧է֧ ܧ֧ݧէѧ ݧԧҧ֧ܧ (XI—XVI ӧ.), ҧ-ѧ (XVI—XVII ӧ.), ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ާѧڧݧ ѧާѧߧ (IX—X ӧ.) է.), էڧӧڧ֧ݧߧ ܧӧѧѧݧ ٧ܧڧ ݧܧ ѧԧ ԧէ.
֧ާاڧߧ ԧէ — ߧ֧ҧݧ ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧ էڧߧѧڧ ѧѧߧڧէ, ߧ֧էѧӧߧ ާ֧ڧӧڧ ӧ ֧ݧ֧ڧ. ѧߧڧ ֧٧ӧѧۧߧ ڧߧѧݧߧѧ ѧݧߧڧ ӧԧݧէڧ ܧѧ ֧٧ߧѧ ٧ݧڧѧ ܧѧݧܧ, ӧ֧ߧѧߧߧѧ ߧ֧ӧܧڧ ܧݧ. ҧݧڧ٧ ا ާߧԧڧ ڧ էڧӧݧ֧ߧڧ ҧܧӧѧݧߧ «ԧݧѧ٧ ݧ֧٧ ߧ ݧ» — ӧ֧ ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ֧ ڧ ҧܧߧӧ֧ߧߧԧ ҧاا֧ߧߧԧ ܧڧڧ, ߧ ڧܧӧ, ܧ ӧݧߧ֧ߧ ܧݧѧէܧ, ڧէݧڧӧѧ ֧٧ҧ ( ܧڧڧ) ٧էѧ֧ ѧܧ ڧԧ ӧ֧ ֧ߧ, ӧ֧ ҧݧڧ ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ߧѧݧߧ֧ ӧ٧է ӧ֧֧ߧߧ ڧ٧֧ӧ. էҧߧ ֧ߧڧܧ ӧݧߧ֧ ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ڧާӧ ѧ — ֧ݧڧܧڧ ڧߧѧ֧ ѧݧ, ֧ߧߧ 1127 ԧէ, ڧѧڧۧ էߧڧ ڧ ӧѧۧڧ ٧ڧ. ܧԧӧ ԧѧݧ֧֧ ߧѧ ާڧߧѧ֧ ܧӧѧ֧ ѧѧ ѧߧѧާ է֧ӧߧ֧ ѧ — ٧ߧѧާ֧ߧڧ֧ۧѧ ݧѧէ -ѧݧ (ҧѧ٧ӧѧߧ ֧ݧڧܧڧ ڧߧѧ֧, ާ֧֧ ѧݧ ާ֧է֧ ڧ-ѧ, ֧ߧߧ 1536 .), ѧާ-ԧ (1380 .), ܧ֧ (XVIII—XX ӧ.), ߧڧܧѧݧߧѧ ާ֧֧ ѧԧܧ-ѧ, ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧ -ݧ-ѧߧ ֧ܧѧߧ ֧ѧܧӧ է֧ݧܧ ֧, էڧӧڧ֧ݧߧ ߧѧԧާاէ֧ߧڧ ܧݧ ߧܧ ܧ-ѧԧѧ ާߧا֧ӧ էԧڧ ֧ܧѧߧ ѧާߧڧܧ ѧڧ֧ܧ.
ѧҧ-ѧ — ֧ߧ ֧ էߧԧ ӧ֧ݧڧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧԧ ѧާߧڧܧ ѧ. «ѧ» — , ߧѧӧ֧ߧ, ߧ ڧ ԧӧڧ ݧ, ܧ ڧԧѧݧ է اڧ٧ߧ ԧ ԧէ, ݧ֧اѧ֧ԧ ߧ ܧѧ ٧ߧۧߧ ߧ. ѧҧ-ѧ — ާԧݧߧ, ֧٧ѧߧߧާ ԧݧѧާ ҧѧ֧ۧ, ҧѧާݧ֧ߧߧ ֧ާ ާߧާ֧ߧѧݧߧާ ާ֧է֧ XVI–XVII ӧ֧ܧ, ҧ ܧԧէ- ֧էڧ֧ ҧ֧ӧ֧ߧߧ اڧ٧ߧ ԧէ.
ѧ — «ԧ ާ٧֧», ѧݧѧԧѧ֧ ҧݧ ֧ 140 ѧڧ֧ܧߧާ ѧާߧڧܧѧާ ֧էߧ֧ӧ֧ܧӧ. ѧܧڧ ѧߧѧާҧݧ ܧѧ -ѧݧ, ѧէѧ, ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ާѧڧݧ ѧާѧߧ, ާڧߧѧ֧ ѧݧ էԧڧ ֧ߧߧ 2300 ݧ֧ ާ ߧѧ٧ѧ ڧӧݧ֧ܧѧ ҧݧ ӧߧڧާѧߧڧ ֧ է֧ߧ. ٧ӧ֧ߧ էҧߧ ѧѧ, էѧܧ ѧܧڧܧ, ֧ߧߧߧ ӧڧ֧ߧߧ էԧڧ ԧѧݧ ӧѧاߧ ݧ ѧ٧ӧڧڧ ѧ.
ڧ֧ܧڧ ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ѧާߧڧܧ ѧ:
· (11-20ӧ).
· ߧѧާҧݧ ݧ-ѧ (ߧѧѧݧ 18-20ӧ).
· ѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ѧާѧߧ (9-10ӧ).
· ѧ٧ѧ ѧާ- (1380 ڧݧ 1384/85).
· ֧է֧ ҧէݧݧ-ѧ (1596/98).
· ֧է֧ ѧէѧ-ѧ (1556/57).
· ֧֧ ѧݧѧߧ (ߧѧѧݧ 16 ).
· ߧѧާҧݧ ԧѧܧ (֧֧, ڧߧѧ֧, ֧է֧), (16 ).
· ߧѧܧ ѧۧߧէڧ էا (1555).
· ߧѧާҧݧ -ѧݧ (12–14 ).
· ߧѧާҧݧ ҧ-ѧ (16–17 ).
· ֧է֧ ܧ֧ݧէѧ (1568/69).
· ѧߧѧܧ էڧ ڧӧѧߧҧ֧ԧ (1620).
· ֧է֧ ݧԧҧ֧ (1417).
· ֧է֧ ҧէݧѧ٧ڧ (1652).
· ֧֧ ݧ ѧ (1712).
· ѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ѧۧڧէէڧ ѧ٧ڧ (ӧѧ ݧӧڧߧ 13 .-14.).
· ѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ֧ ݧ ѧ (ӧѧ ݧӧڧߧ 14 , 15 ڧݧ 16 .)
· ֧֧ ѧާѧ٧ԧ (12–16 ).
· ѧߧѧܧ ѧۧ٧ѧҧѧ (1598/99).
· ֧է֧ -ާڧߧ (1807).
· ӧ֧ ѧܧԧ ާڧ ڧѧ (ܧߧ֧ 19 ߧѧ. 20 ).
· -ѧܧ — ֧ ٧ѧߧ֧ߧڧ ֧ާ֧ۧӧ ֧ۧ ҧѧۧ (1560/63).

ڧӧ — ߧѧڧ ԧ-٧ѧӧ֧էߧڧ. ֧ԧ֧ߧէ ԧݧѧڧ, ߧӧѧߧ ߧ ҧݧ ֧ ѧާڧ ֧ާ, ߧ ݧ֧ԧ֧ߧէѧߧԧ . ֧ܧԧէ էڧ ڧ ߧӧߧ ֧ߧ ֧ݧڧܧԧ ֧ݧܧӧԧ , XVI . ߧ ҧݧ ݧڧ֧ էڧߧѧڧ ڧާڧէ ݧاڧݧ ߧӧߧ ѧҧܧڧ ߧܧ ֧ߧ ѧߧӧ ֧֧ߧڧ ݧ֧էڧ ֧ ݧ֧ڧ, է ѧާԧ ӧاէ֧ߧڧ ѧ ڧۧܧ ާ֧ڧ. ڧӧѧ ԧ ݧӧѧާ ҧ֧ݧ֧٧ߧ, ֧ԧ ߧѧէ ӧڧէ֧. է֧ ѧߧڧݧ ҧݧ֧ ߧ ѧާߧڧܧ ѧާ ѧ٧ߧ ߧѧէ — է֧ӧߧ ԧէܧѧ ֧ߧ, ڧѧէ֧ݧ ߧ-, -ѧݧ — ܧا֧ߧߧ ֧ߧ ӧߧ֧ߧߧڧ ԧ, էӧ֧ ѧ-ѧݧ, ѧҧѧ ڧѧ-ѧݧ, ާڧߧѧ֧ ާ֧է֧ ݧѧ-էا, ѧާ֧էާڧ-ѧߧ ѧݧ-ڧߧ, ާ֧֧ اާ 218 ܧݧߧߧѧާ, ާѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ѧާէ ѧݧѧӧ ާߧا֧ӧ էԧڧ ߧڧܧѧݧߧ ا֧ߧڧ. ӧ֧֧ — ݧ֧ ӧ֧ާ էݧ ֧֧ߧڧ ڧӧ.
ڧڧ֧ܧڧ ԧ ڧӧ ާ֧ ѧߧڧ ܧ٧ڧ֧ܧڧ ҧѧ ӧߧԧ ԧէ է֧ӧߧ֧ ѧ ԧէ ѧ-ܧѧݧ, ԧէ ѧݧا֧ߧ ާߧԧڧݧ֧ߧߧ ѧާߧڧܧ ѧڧ֧ܧ.
ڧ֧ܧڧ ѧڧ֧ܧߧ ѧާߧڧܧ ڧӧ:
· ѧ-ѧݧ: ֧֧ ֧է֧ ѧڧ-ҧѧ (ܧߧ֧ 18.- ߧѧѧݧ 19.);
· ܧݧ ӧ ѧݧӧ ѧӧ٧.
· ֧է֧ ݧݧѧܧݧڧѧ (1834/35).
· ֧է֧ ݧ-ѧ-ڧߧѧ (1804/12).
· ڧ ѧѧӧѧ ѧѧ ݧݧѧܧݧڧѧߧ (19).
· ֧է֧ ҧէݧݧ ѧ (1865).
· ֧֧ ѧݧѧ ߧ-ѧߧ (1657).
· ѧ-ѧݧ (էӧ֧ ݧݧѧܧݧڧѧߧ) (1830/36).
· ާ֧֧ (1832/42).
· اާ ֧֧ ڧߧѧ֧ (1788/89).
· ѧӧ٧ݧ֧ ѧڧ ݧѧէէڧߧ (14).
· ֧է֧ ѧާާѧ ާڧ ѧߧ (1851/52).
· ڧߧѧ֧ ѧݧ ڧߧ (1855).
· ߧ- (1868/88).
· ڧߧѧ֧ -ѧ- (1888).
· ֧է֧ ѧާާѧ ާڧ ѧߧ (1871).
· ֧է֧ ڧԧѧ٧ڧ ѧߧ (1718/20).
· ֧֧ ѧԧݧѧߧէ (19 .).
· ֧է֧ ѧҧѧߧ (1838).